DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR POWER CONTROL in VS .NET

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DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR POWER CONTROL
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Figure 11.1. Wireless ad hoc network topology.
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networks. Based on the works conducted by Kawadia and Kumar [1], we describe the impacts of power control on the layers in the protocol stack and then derive some guidelines to design ef cient power control algorithms in wireless ad hoc networks. 11.2.1 Wireless Network Architecture Wireless ad hoc networks are multihop wireless networks in which a set of mobile or stationary terminals cooperatively maintain the network connectivity [28]. This on-demand architecture is completely from the wired and wireless local networks. An example of a wireless ad hoc network topology is shown in Figure 11.1. Ad hoc networks are characterized by dynamic, unpredictable, random, multihop topologies with no infrastructure support. Since wireless ad hoc networks are self-organized, they are helpful in situations where communications are needed but no infrastructure is available or the cost to build such infrastructure is not affordable. For example, they can be used in military environments, emergence operations, and so on. Wireless ad hoc networks have attracted considerable attentions in recent years as evidenced by the IETF working group MANETs (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks). Due to the success of the layered architecture of current Internet, wireless ad hoc networks are also developed based on the same layered structure with slight modi cations. The typical protocol stack for a generic wireless ad hoc network is shown in Figure 11.2. The hierarchy of layers provides natural abstractions to deal with the natural hierarchy present in networks. r Physical Layer. The physical layer is responsible for converting bits into radio signals, and it disseminates them in the wireless medium. It consists of-radio frequency (RF) circuits, modulation, and coding systems. r Data Link Layer. The data link layer is responsible for establishing a reliable and secure logical link over the unreliable wireless medium. The data link layer is thus responsible for sharing the wireless medium, link error control, and security. The data link layer have two sublayers: Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer
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POWER CONTROL PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS
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Application Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer
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Figure 11.2. Protocol stack for a generic wireless network.
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and Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayers. The MAC sublayer is responsible for allocating the time, frequency, or code space among terminals to share the same wireless channel in a region. Transmission power control can affect the wireless medium sharing among a set of terminals and thus has a signi cant impact on the MAC layer. r Network Layer. The network layer is responsible for routing packets, thus providing host-to-host communication between a pair of terminals. Incorporating the transmission power control function into the routing protocols, energy can be saved for terminals, which is an important metric to assess the performance of wireless ad hoc networks. r Transport Layer. The transport layer is responsible for providing communications for applications residing in different terminals in the network. One of the main functions at the transport layer is congestion control, which mitigates the congestion level in wireless ad hoc networks and thus improves the end-to-end throughput of the networks. Transmission power control has a signi cant in uence on this layer because it determines the interference level in the wireless networks, which creates congestion region in wireless networks. r Application Layer. The main function of application layer is to support network applications. In addition, it may provide some network management services to monitor or manage the performance of wireless ad hoc networks. 11.2.2 Impact of Power Control on Protocol Stack The transmit power level determines the quality of the signal received at the receiver, the range of transmission, and the magnitude of the interference it creates for other receivers. These factors have considerable in uences on several layers in the protocol stack for example, MAC, network, and transport layer. Therefore, transmission
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