ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS in .NET framework

Create QR Code in .NET framework ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
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providing intermittent connectivity only. Since a node that wishes to transmit data may be located outside the Infostations coverage areas for an extended period of time and must always transmit to an Infostation directly, large delays may result. Upon arrival in a coverage zone, the node can transmit at very high bit-rates. Thus, Infostations trade connectivity for capacity, by exploiting the mobility of the nodes. It is assumed that the Infostations are connected. Small and Haas [22] propose a Shared Wireless Infostation Model (SWIM), where SWIM is a marriage of the Infostations concept with the (epidemic) ad hoc networking model (propagation of information packets within SWIM is identical to epidemic routing protocol [20]). The only difference is that any one of the many Infostations could serve as a destination node, while in reference 20, there is only one destination node for a given packet. A real-world application based on the Infostation model is presented in reference 22. One of the bene ts SWIM has, by allowing the packet to spread throughout the mobile nodes, is that the delay for the replicas to reach an Infostation can be signi cantly reduced. However, this comes at a price: Spreading the packets to other nodes consumes network capacity. Again, there is a capacity delay tradeoff. This tradeoff can be controlled by limiting the parameters of the spread for example, by controlling the probability of packet transmission between two adjacent nodes, transmission range of each node, or the number and distribution of the Infostations. However, how to choose these controlling parameters is not discussed in reference 22. Let T be the time from the packet generation until the rst time the packet reaches one of the infostations. For random waypoint and group mobility patterns, a three-state Markov Chain model can be presented as in Figure 8.6, where S denotes a node with no packets, I denotes a node having packets, R represents nodes of oad their packets to infostations, is the nodes contact rate, and is the contact rate per infostation. Using the three-state Markov chain model, the cumulative distribution of T can be easily obtained. A relay-based approach to be used in conjunction with traditional ad hoc routing protocols is proposed in reference 23. This approach takes advantage of node mobility to disseminate messages to mobile nodes. The result is the Mobile Relay Protocol (MRP), which integrates message routing and storage in the network. The basic idea is that if a route to a destination is unavailable, a node performs a controlled local broadcast (a relay) to its immediate neighbors (that is the only time that broadcast is used in the protocol). All nodes that receive this packet store it and enter the relaying mode. In the relaying mode, the MRP rst checks with the (traditional) routing protocols to see if a route of less than d hops exists to forward the packet. If so, it forwards the packet and the packet is delivered. If no valid route exists for the packet, it enters the storage phase, which consists of the following steps:
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Figure 8.6. Markov chain model of an infectious disease with susceptible, infected, and recovered states.
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Step 1. If the packet is already stored in the node s buffer, then the older version of the packet is discarded. Step 2. Otherwise, the node buffer is checked. If it is not full, then the packet is stored and the time-to-live parameter h in the MRP header of the packet is decremented by 1. Step 3. If the buffer is full, then the least recent packet is removed from the buffer and it is relayed to a single random neighbor if h > 0. In a network with suf cient mobility, it is quite likely that one of the relay nodes to which the packet has been relayed will encounter a node that has a valid, short (conventional) route to the eventual destination, thereby increasing the likelihood that the message will be successfully delivered. It is not clear why the authors choose to broadcast only once and then select one node randomly to forward in case the buffer is full (to keep the packet in the network). Why not broadcast twice or three times To limit the amount of broadcasting to all its neighbors as in references 20 and 22, the Spraying protocol [24] restricts the forwarding to a ray in the vicinity of the destination s last known location. In reference 24, it is assumed that the destination s last location is known and there is a separate location manager in the system. To deal with high mobility, Spray routing [24] multicasts traf c within the vicinity of the last known location of a session s destination. The idea is that even though a highly mobile node may not be in the location last reported by the location tracking mechanism, it is likely to be in one of the surrounding locations. By spraying to the vicinity of the last-known location of the destination, the algorithm attempts to deliver packets to the destination even if it moves to a nearby location during the location tracking convergence time. A sprayed packet is rst unicast to a node close to the destination, and then it is multicast to multiple nodes around the destination. The magnitude of the spraying depends on the mobility: The higher the mobility, the larger the vicinity. Upon a change in af liation, a node sends a location update to its location manager. In order to communicate with a destination node, D, a source node sends a location subscribe to the location manager. The current location and changes (in location) thereafter are sent by the location manager to the source using a location information message. Note that it is possible that the destination gets duplicate packets, and it is assumed that there is an end-to-end duplicate detection mechanism that will discard such packets. Spray routing is an integrated location tracking and forwarding scheme. Both location managers and switches/routers participate in spray routing. How to choose the rst node at the beginning to forward to is not clearly explained in reference 24. An illustration of the spraying routing algorithm is given in Figure 8.7. 8.3.2 Estimation (of the Link Forwarding Probability)-Based Approach Instead of blindly forwarding packets to all or some neighbors, intermediate nodes estimate the chance, for each outgoing link, of eventually reaching the destination.
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