Routing Protocols in Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and Delay-Tolerant Networks in VS .NET

Making QR-Code in VS .NET Routing Protocols in Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and Delay-Tolerant Networks
Routing Protocols in Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and Delay-Tolerant Networks
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8.1 INTRODUCTION In the last few years, there has been much research activity in mobile (wireless) ad hoc networks (MANETs). MANETs are infrastructureless, and nodes in the networks are constantly moving. In MANETs, nodes can directly communicate with each other if they enter each other s communication range. A node can terminate packets or forward packets (serve as a relay). Thus, a message traverses an ad hoc network by being relayed from one node to another, until it reaches its destination. As nodes are moving, this becomes a challenging task, since the topology of the network is in constant change. How to nd a destination, how to route to that destination, and how to ensure robust communication in the face of constant topology change are major challenges in mobile ad hoc networks. Routing in mobile ad hoc networks is a well-studied topic. To accommodate the dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, an abundance of routing protocols have recently been proposed, such as OLSR [1], AODV [2], DSR [3], LAR [4], EASE [5, 6], ODMRP [7], and many others [8, 9]. For all these routing protocols, it is implicitly assumed that the network is connected and there is a contemporaneous end-to-end path between any source and destination pair. However, in a physical ad hoc network, the assumption that there is a contemporaneous end-to-end path between any source and destination pair may not be true as illustrated below. In MANETs, when nodes are in motion, links can be obstructed by intervening objects. When nodes must conserve power, links are shut down periodically. These events result in intermittent connectivity. At any given time, when no path exists between source and destination, network partition is said
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Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Edited by Azzedine Boukerche Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons Inc.
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ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
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Figure 8.1. Illustration of time-evolving behavior of the ad hoc networks.
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to occur. Thus, it is perfectly possible that two nodes may never be part of the same connected portion of the network. Figure 8.1 illustrates the time evolving behavior in intermittently connected networks (ICNs). In Figure 8.1, there is no direct path from node S to node D at any given time. Packets from node S can be delivered to node D if intermediate nodes can hold/carry the packets (at 8:00 am, node S sends the packets to node 2, at 10:10 am, node 2 forwards the packets to node 3, and at 11:00 am, node 3 forwards the packets to node D). Examples of an intermittently connected network are as follows: (a) An interplanet satellite communication network where satellites and ground nodes may only communicate with each other several times a day. (b) A sensor network where sensors are not powerful enough to send data to a collecting server all the time or scheduled to be wake/sleep periodically. (c) A military ad hoc network where nodes (e.g., tanks, airplanes, soldiers) may move randomly and are subject to being destroyed. Applications in ICNs must tolerate delays beyond conventional IP forwarding delays, and these networks are referred to as delay/disruption tolerant networks (DTNs). Routing protocols such AODV and OLSR do not work properly in DTNs, since under these protocols, when packets arrive and no contemporaneous end-toend paths for their destinations can be found, these packets are simply dropped. New routing protocols and system architectures should be developed for DTNs. There are many potential applications in DTNs, such as interplanetary network (IPN), Zebranet, DataMule and village networks. IPN [10] consists of both terrestrial and interplanetary links, which suffers from long delays and episodic connectivity. In Zebranet [11], wild-life researchers drive through a forest collecting information about the dispersed zebra population. In the DataMule project [12], DataMules randomly move and collect data from low power sensors. For village networks, for example, a recent project in developing nations uses rural buses to provide Internet connectivity to otherwise isolated and remote villages that do not have any communication
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