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sending rates, or for more connections. The above results justify the higher effect of scheduling at greater contention and for the need to consider scheduling formulation for an effective routing at interference hot-spots.
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7.7 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK In this chapter, we discussed the effect of interference on the design of routing protocols. We showed the progression of routing protocol development with respect to this problem. The rst-generation routing protocols were based on hop count. In realistic settings, it became evident that hop count does not provide high-quality routes. This led to the development of link-quality-aware routing the second generation of routing protocols. These protocols estimate link quality in a number of ways and expose this estimate to the routing layer to enable more informed routing decisions. We described the problems of estimating link quality and combining link qualities into route quality. We also overviewed and classi ed existing approaches to this problem. While link-quality-aware routing provide signi cantly improves on the performance of hop-count-based routing, it still fails to provide an optimal routing con guration that optimizes the network usage. We believe that a third generation of routing protocols is needed one that coordinates routing decisions to provide better overall network performance. We discussed several models to represent MHWNs to enable analysis and optimization of these networks, starting from estimating the throughput of a single-hop link to estimation of an interference-aware routing con gurations for multiple multihop connections. Globally aware routing formulations were studied for effective route con gurations under a simplistic physical model. The effectiveness of such formulations when translated directly into a realistic environment were studied. While signi cant improvements were observed, it was also seen that formulation results from the simplistic formulations can lead to performance limitations under high traf c. The assumptions of the underlying physical model and the ideal scheduling policy in the formulations were found to be inaccurate. The need to capture the lower-level MAC interactions under an advanced physical model was motivated and the existing models to capture the scheduling effects were discussed. Superior performance of the globally aware routing formulations with such advanced model were demonstrated. The tight coupling of the link quality with the scheduling effects indicates that an integrated routing and MAC formulation is necessary to capture the optimal routing con gurations. Analyzing the scheduling interactions in a realistic wireless testbed experiments and comparing them to the advanced physical models used in the simulators is an essential step in verifying the accuracy of the models in realistic testbeds. The statistical modeling of physical layer from the testbeds will enable capturing the intricate details like multipath and fading, thus predicting the scheduling interactions with greater accuracy and is an area of future work. While globally aware routing formulations cannot be directly transformed into distributed protocols, it gives the fundamental insight into the parameters required in the design space of the next-generation routing protocols for MHWNs. Capturing
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the link quality and the temporal variations due to intricate scheduling interactions is one aspect of the third-generation protocols. Such research studies in a distributed environment have a direct implication on the globally aware routing protocol. The challenging part and the primary contribution of the third-generation routing protocols is predicting and adapting to the link-quality variations due to the route changes. While link-quality measurements quantify the present state of the link, an additional need for globally aware routing protocols is to predict the effect of the new route on the links, and thus on the route quality. The effect of changing traf c on a single link can affect the interference maps and the scheduling interactions of the network. Hence, the problem requires communication of the routing decisions and link-quality predictions between multiple connections. The scalability issues of such a distributed protocol, which needs nonlocal information, is an interesting research domain. The third-generation distributed routing protocols will aid in the development of the dynamic QoS needs in MHWNs. The prediction of the route quality and the interaction between different routes can bene t the network utilization having dynamic connections with varying rates and QoS needs. An active area of future research is to develop the heuristics of provisioning such connections.
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7.8 EXERCISES 1. Compare and contrast shortest-hop-based routing and link-quality-based routing for (i) static networks and (ii) mobile networks. Discuss issues speci c to (a) routing protocol overheads and (b) measurement accuracy. 2. Link-Quality Source Routing (LQSR) is a modi cation of DSR routing protocol that uses ETX for measuring link-quality and routes according to the ETX metric instead of choosing the shortest number of hops. Explain and show with an example how (i) LQSR can outperform DSR and (ii) globally coordinated routing can outperform LQSR. 3. Consider a delay-sensitive multimedia application in a MHWN that are characterized by smaller packet size and require a lower end-to-end delay. Chart out the characteristics of an effective link-quality metric for such a network. Discuss the route quality estimation characteristics for such applications. Assume that an ideal scheduler with no packet losses and all the traf c present on MHWN are of the above nature. 4. For link-quality-aware routing, most of the protocols include mechanisms for updating the quality for links being used. However, there is no mechanism to update the cost of links that are not being used, which can vary in cost depending on the quality of the channel, and the variability in interference that is experienced. (a) Explain implications of this behavior. (b) Assuming that the cost of unused links can somehow be tracked as well, how would the behavior change Can this result in instability Show using an example.
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