ROUTING WITH KNOWN POSITIONS in Visual Studio .NET

Creation QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in Visual Studio .NET ROUTING WITH KNOWN POSITIONS
ROUTING WITH KNOWN POSITIONS
Quick Response Code Recognizer In .NET Framework
Using Barcode Control SDK for .NET Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in .NET applications.
Position-based Routing Protocols
Generate QR Code JIS X 0510 In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR Code ISO/IEC18004 image in VS .NET applications.
Known (Physical) Coordinates
Decoding QR Code In .NET Framework
Using Barcode recognizer for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications.
Unknown (Virtual) Coordinates
Create Barcode In .NET Framework
Using Barcode generator for .NET framework Control to generate, create barcode image in .NET applications.
Best Effort Delivery
Barcode Recognizer In .NET Framework
Using Barcode recognizer for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications.
Guaranteed Delivery
Encode QR Code In C#.NET
Using Barcode creator for .NET Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Distance-based
Quick Response Code Drawer In VS .NET
Using Barcode maker for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in ASP.NET applications.
Hop-based
Quick Response Code Printer In VB.NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET framework Control to generate, create QR Code JIS X 0510 image in VS .NET applications.
Routing Hole Avoidance
Creating Code 39 Full ASCII In .NET Framework
Using Barcode generator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 3 of 9 image in VS .NET applications.
Routing Hole Recovery
Generating EAN13 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode creation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create European Article Number 13 image in .NET applications.
Figure 8.1. A classi cation of position-based routing protocols.
Generating UCC.EAN - 128 In .NET
Using Barcode generation for VS .NET Control to generate, create EAN / UCC - 13 image in .NET applications.
categorization, those routing protocols that assume that sensors are aware of their physical coordinates.
Encoding EAN-8 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode creator for VS .NET Control to generate, create GS1 - 8 image in .NET applications.
8.3 ROUTING WITH KNOWN POSITIONS When investigating position-based routing algorithms for sensor networks, it is natural to assume the a priori knowledge of location information via preprogramming or GPS-like services. Thus, no efforts are made by these protocols to establish location within a network. Current methods make some necessary assumptions. First, links are bidirectional: If node x can receive messages from node y, then y can receive messages from x. In addition, communication models often adhere to the simple unit disk graph (UDG) model where all communication ranges are normalized to some range r. In the UDG neighbors are pairs of nodes separated by a Euclidean distance r. The UDG model is relaxed later in our discussion. Feasible schemes must, at a minimum, prove to be loop-free and scalable. We demonstrate some of these subtleties by starting with a discussion of the naive approaches to position-based routing. 8.3.1 Naive Forwarding Mechanisms Research into scalable forwarding methods for sensor networks has explored a variety of forwarding schemes. Scalability is maintained by keeping knowledge only of the nodes in communication range and choosing the next hop based on this knowledge. All position-based schemes share a common theme: The next hop is determined by maximizing or minimizing some criteria associated with local nodes positions. We call this the progress criteria. Notions of Progress . We begin with a formal de nition of progress. Say a node s holds a message to be forwarded to a destination location d (see Figure 8.2) and has knowledge of all node locations within its communication radius. Then we
Encode Barcode In Java
Using Barcode maker for Java Control to generate, create bar code image in Java applications.
POSITION-BASED ROUTING FOR SENSOR NETWORKS: APPROACHES AND OBSTACLES
EAN 128 Generator In Visual C#
Using Barcode creator for .NET Control to generate, create USS-128 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
d a m
Paint Data Matrix 2d Barcode In VB.NET
Using Barcode creation for .NET Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Figure 8.2. Progress.
Bar Code Printer In VB.NET
Using Barcode generation for .NET Control to generate, create barcode image in .NET framework applications.
have the following de nition used to better understand the behavior of position-based forwarding schemes. De nition 8.3.1. The progress of a node x en route from sender s to destination d is de ned as the orthogonal projection of the location of x onto the line sd. We use Figure 8.2 to better demonstrate various notions of progress as discussed below. In this gure, sensor node s holds a message destined for sensor node d. The large circle centered at s represents the communication range of s; thus all nodes inside the circle are neighbors of s. The dotted horizontal line sd is the line onto which orthogonal projections are made in order to evaluate and compare progress criteria. The rst forwarding mechanism based on the idea of progress was proposed by Takagi and Kleinrock [14]. In their Most Forward within Radius scheme, or MFR, the node with the greatest progress is chosen to be the next hop. Referring to Figure 8.2 we can see that node m projects furthest onto the line that joins s and d. It is important to note that m provides the greatest amount of progress though it is not the node closest to the destination. The motivation behind the use of this myopic routing strategy was to allow for tractable analysis. Recall that progress is de ned as a projection onto a line. Clearly, because we are working with projections on a line, the dot product of dm ds will be minimal over all other neighbors of s when using MFR. This simple notion allowed the authors of reference 14 to determine an optimal neighborhood size for their speci c problem. The converse scheme Nearest Forward Progress, or NFP was later proposed in reference 15. In this work the node with the minimum progress, depicted as node n in Figure 8.2, is selected as the next hop. This approach may seem counter-intuitive; but consider that if the broadcast range is variable, then this method has the least probability of collision as well as improved energy savings. More recently, the direction of nodes was proposed as a criteria for progress in reference 16. The node chosen to be the next hop is the node that is closest to the
Encode Barcode In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode printer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in .NET applications.
Generate Bar Code In .NET
Using Barcode generator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create barcode image in ASP.NET applications.
Printing ECC200 In Visual C#
Using Barcode printer for .NET framework Control to generate, create ECC200 image in .NET applications.