Figure 7.12. CNet(G) clustering scheme. in Visual Studio .NET

Painting QR in Visual Studio .NET Figure 7.12. CNet(G) clustering scheme.
Figure 7.12. CNet(G) clustering scheme.
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CLUSTERING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: A GRAPH THEORY PERSPECTIVE
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neighbors, it returns the token to the node from which it got the token for the rst time. Two operations are de ned to treat the movement of nodes: node-move-in and node-move-out. These operations are supposed to be atomic, and they can not be performed simultaneously. In this clustering architecture, a new node u announces itself by sending a message to join the existing CNet(G) and the network reorganizes itself. When u performs the node-move-in operation, it checks the status of its neighbors. If there exist cluster heads in N(u), u selects one to be its head and itself becomes a pure cluster member. Otherwise, if there are gateway nodes in its neighbors, u selects one of them as its gateway and becomes a cluster head of a new cluster. If there are no cluster heads and no gateway nodes in N(u), u becomes a cluster head and sets one neighboring pure cluster member to be the gateway of itself. After this process, the nodes in N(u) update their information. According to the authors, a CNet(G) can be formed statically and dynamically in O(n) and O( n Ti ), respectively, where T (i) is the i=1 number of rounds that a node-move-in operation requires for an i-node graph. When a node u wishes to leave the network, it must perform the node-move-out operation. If u is a pure cluster member, it sends an I m leaving message and simply leaves from the network. Otherwise, the node-move-out algorithm works as follows: If u is a cluster head or a gateway node, CNet(G) is divided into two subtrees. One is the tree T with u as the root (not including the root in CNet(G)) and one is the tree H with the root of CNet(G) as the root. u is removed from T and the other nodes of T are added to H by using the node-move-in operation on each node, so that the resulted tree is CNet(G). If u is the root of the whole network and N(u) = , a cluster head / that is connected with u by a gateway is elected and is set as the new root of CNet(G); if N(u) = and u is the only cluster head in CNet(G), one of the nodes in N(u) becomes the new root and calls the Eulerian procedure to create a new CNet(G). Uchida et al. also propose a second version of the node-move-in and node-moveout operations, considering networks where the rst operation is performed more frequently than the second one. In this case, the list of neighbors for every node is not maintained. For the node-move-in operation, one leader is rst elected from the neighbors of the new node u. If S = {the leader (not a cluster head)} {neighbor cluster heads of u}, every node v S sends its ID at some round t. If u receives an ID at round t, it means |S| = 1 and S contains only the leader and there are no cluster-head neighbors of u. If u receives no ID at round t, it means |S| 2 and there exists at least one cluster head from which u can elect its cluster head. Otherwise, it can check for gateways in order to select one of them as its gateway when it becomes a CH. For the node-move-out operation, u recognizes its neighbors (except its parent and its children) by calling the Eulerian procedure described above, and after that it performs the same operations described in the former node-move-out operation. Although this clustering architecture is the one we consider the most appropriate between the tree approaches considered in this section, there are still some issues remaining for example, if one sensor is aware when it is leaving the network in case of energy depletion or malfunction, instead of just moving out of the cluster range.
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