A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN SENSOR NETWORKS in .NET

Print QR Code 2d barcode in .NET A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN SENSOR NETWORKS
A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN SENSOR NETWORKS
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6.4.4 Hierarchical Protocols As the name suggests, this class of routing techniques create a virtual hierarchy among the nodes of the sensor network. Such a hierarchy may be based on zones which comprise of divisions of the entire network area, node functionality or node location. Irregardless of the system creating the network hierarchy, the routing protocol must be designed to make maximum use of this hierarchical pattern.
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Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) [23]. LEACH is based on a simple clustering mechanism by which energy can be conserved since cluster heads are selected for data transmission instead of other nodes in the network (Algorithm 2). By the received signal strengths, local cluster heads are selected to serve as the routers to the data sinks. A sensor node sends its data to the local cluster head in turn transmitted to the nearest cluster head on the way to the sink. Since the cluster heads are only responsible for bulk of the data transfer, the overhead is minimized; however, if the cluster heads are chosen beforehand and remain xed throughout the network lifetime, they will easily die out, thereby ending the lifetime of the member nodes of the particular cluster as well. To solve this problem, LEACH performs a periodic randomized rotation of the cluster head to enable all the nodes within the cluster to take on a collective responsibility in order not to drain the battery of a single node. The optimal number of cluster heads is considered 5 percent of the total number of nodes. LEACH also performs local data fusion and aggregation to compress the data received from each cluster. Sensor nodes are selected as cluster heads by the node choosing a random number between zero and one. The node is selected as a cluster head for the current round if the number is less than the following threshold values: p
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where p is the desired percentage of cluster heads, r is the current round, and G is 1 the set of nodes that have not been cluster heads in the last p rounds. Once all the nodes are organized into clusters, the cluster head will create a schedule for the nodes in its cluster which enables the radio components of each cluster node to be turned off for most of the time. Each node transmits its data to the cluster head according to its schedule. On completion, the cluster head aggregates and sends all the data to the sink. LEACH achieves a signi cant reduction in energy dissipation when compared with direct communication and other minimum energy routing protocols. Properties of LEACH includes (i) dynamic clustering to increase network lifetime; (ii) singlehop routing from node to cluster head, hence saving energy; (iii) distributiveness; (iv) additional overhead due to cluster head changes and calculations leading to energy inef ciency for dynamic clustering in large networks.
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SENSOR NETWORKS ROUTING PROTOCOLS
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ALGORITHM 2. Pseudo-code Describing the Operation of the LEACH Protocol Setup Phase: In this phase clusters are created---cluster heads (CHs) are chosen 1. 2. 3. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. ForEach (node N) N selects a random number r between 0 and 1 If (r < Threshold value) N becomes a CH N broadcasts a message advertising its CH status Else N becomes a regular node N listens to the advertising messages of the CHs N chooses the CH with the strongest signal as its cluster head N informs the selected CH and becomes a member of its cluster EndIf ForEach (clusterhead CH) CH creates a TDMA schedule for each node to transmit data CH communicates the TDMA schedule to each node in the cluster EndFor
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Steady State Phase: 1. ForEach (regular node N) 2. N collects sensed data 3. N transmits the sensed data to the CH in the corresponding TDMA time slot 4. EndFor 5. ForEach (cluster head CH) 6. CH receives data from the nodes of the cluster 7. CH aggregates the data 8. CH transmits the data to the base station 9. EndFor
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Power-Ef cient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS) [24]. PEGASIS forms chains of the sensor nodes instead of forming multiple clusters as performed in LEACH protocol. Each node in the chain can transmit and receive data from its neighbors. In the entire chain, one node is selected to transmit all the data received to the sink or base station. The chain construction follows a greedy approach. The problem of building a chain to minimize the total length is similar to the traveling salesman problem.
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