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6.2 APPLICATIONS Sensor networks can be deployed in a wide variety of applications. One of the main classi cation criteria is whether the sensor nodes are mobile or immobile. The data collection might be either continuous or periodic; the latter can lead to bursty traf c patterns. Naturally, every application requires a speci c set of sensor types. Some of the most popular sensor types are: light, sound, magnetic eld, accelerator, temperature, humidity, chemical composition such as soil makeup, mechanical stress levels on an object, and many others [6]. Some of the primary application domains for sensor networks are the following: Environmental. Environmental sensors can be used to detect and track natural disasters such as forest res or oods. They can also be used to track the movement of birds and other animals. Military. The sensor networks will be an integral part of the future C4ISRT systems (command, control, communications, computing, intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, and targeting.) They can, for instance, be used to track the movement of the enemy in the battle eld. The main advantage of WSNs is that they can be deployed and operated remotely, without putting human lives at risk. Naturally, military deployments bring their own challenges of security and con dentiality. Health. Sensor networks can be used in hospitals and clinics for patient monitoring and tracking of various systems and humans. Sensors can be also used to track and monitor the drug doses prescribed to patients and prevent situations where the drugs are administered to the wrong patient. Sensors can be deployed for telemonitoring of patients, a promising new direction for at-home monitoring and care for the elderly. Home. The various home appliances can be sensor enabled and interconnected with each other and a central control system of the home. These sensor-enabled sensor homes might not only offer additional conveniences, but will also be safer and more energy-ef cient. 6.3 DESIGN ISSUES The challenges posed by the deployment of sensor networks is a superset of those found in wireless ad hoc networks. Sensor nodes communicate over wireless, lossy lines with no infrastructure. An additional challenge is related to the limited, usually nonrenewable energy supply of the sensor nodes. In order to maximize the lifetime of the network, the protocols need to be designed from the beginning with the objective of ef cient management of the energy resources [3]. Let us now discuss the individual design issues in greater detail. Fault Tolerance. Sensor nodes are vulnerable and frequently deployed in dangerous environment. Nodes can fail due to hardware problems or physical damage
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or by exhausting their energy supply. We expect the node failures to be much higher than the one normally considered in wired or infrastructure-based wireless networks. The protocols deployed in a sensor network should be able to detect these failures as soon as possible and be robust enough to handle a relatively large number of failures while maintaining the overall functionality of the network. This is especially relevant to the routing protocol design, which has to ensure that alternate paths are available for rerouting of the packets. Different deployment environments pose different fault tolerance requirements. Scalability. Sensor networks vary in scale from several nodes to potentially several hundred thousand. In addition, the deployment density is also variable. For collecting high-resolution data, the node density might reach the level where a node has several thousand neighbors in their transmission range. The protocols deployed in sensor networks need to be scalable to these levels and be able to maintain adequate performance. Production Costs. Because many deployment models consider the sensor nodes to be disposable devices, sensor networks can compete with traditional information gathering approaches only if the individual sensor nodes can be produced very cheaply. The target price envisioned for a sensor node should ideally be less than $1. Hardware Constraints. At minimum, every sensor node needs to have a sensing unit, a processing unit, a transmission unit, and a power supply. Optionally, the nodes may have several built-in sensors or additional devices such as a localization system to enable location-aware routing. However, every additional functionality comes with additional cost and increases the power consumption and physical size of the node. Thus, additional functionality needs to be always balanced against cost and low-power requirements. Transmission Media. The communication between the nodes is normally implemented using radio communication over the popular ISM bands. However, some sensor networks use optical or infrared communication, with the latter having the advantage of being robust and virtually interference free. Power Consumption. As we have already seen, many of the challenges of sensor networks revolve around the limited power resources. The size of the nodes limits the size of the battery. The software and hardware design needs to carefully consider the issues of ef cient energy use. For instance, data compression might reduce the amount of energy used for radio transmission, but uses additional energy for computation and/or ltering. The energy policy also depends on the application; in some applications, it might be acceptable to turn off a subset of nodes in order to conserve energy while other applications require all nodes operating simultaneously. 6.4 SENSOR NETWORKS ROUTING PROTOCOLS Routing has been carried out in sensor networks with the emphasis on conserving energy. Power ef ciency is the most important design metric because it is an
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