SECURE TIME SYNCHRONIZATION in Visual Studio .NET

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SECURE TIME SYNCHRONIZATION
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Figure 17.7. Data packets transmitted over the radio channel. (Adapted from reference 13.)
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Possible Attacks on FTSP. The FTSP protocol is more robust for node failures than the TPSN protocol, because there is no need to maintain a tree structure that is notoriously vulnerable to single-point failures: The failure of a single node can disconnect the whole subtree. The weak point of the FTSP protocol is the election process. Any node can declare itself a root, and the protocol relies on the node to step back if a lower id root appears. A compromised node can easily masquerade as a root; and by declaring a very low id, it can actually dislodge the existing legitimate root. Then, by sending a synchronization message with a fake timestamp, it can make the nodes synchronize to an incorrect time. 17.3.4 Countermeasures for the Attacks In this section, we describe the possible countermeasures for time synchronization attacks in both single-hop and multihop networks [14]. In single-hop networks, transmission range of each node reaches to every other node in the network. Let us consider a speci c case of a single-hop network where there is a base station and its transmission range covers all the nodes in the network. The challenge for this type of networks is to preclude the malicious node(s) from compromising the base station and immediately start injecting the network with invalid timing information. In this case, the message from the base station must be authenticated in order to carry out the correct sequence of time synchronization methods. This can be achieved by utilizing a broadcast authentication scheme such as TESLA [15]. Another approach can be the use of different private keys between the sender and receiver nodes. In the multihop networks, many nodes may need to communicate with each other via intermediate nodes due to the limited transmission ranges. It makes sense for nodes to receive the global time of their immediate neighbors instead of neighbors several hops away. In that case, we need to take into consideration the incurred network delays between these nodes and their far-away neighbors. An approximation approach can be used nd an upper bound on the error produced by the malicious node. Introduction of redundancy to the network is another viable approach. For instance, both FTSP and TPSN compute the offset and skew of their clock based on the timing information obtained from only one neighboring node. This redundancy approach can be easily
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A TAXONOMY OF SECURE TIME SYNCHRONIZATION ALGORITHMS
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applied to FTSP where a set of nodes can be used for the synchronization computations. The nodes can take the median of these received multiple updates. The private keys can be set up between the nodes and their neighbors at the beginning such that a malicious node can be precluded from injecting erroneous updates into the network. Furthermore, if a node becomes aware of one of its neighbors update value being substantially different than the updates from its other neighbors, the node can refrain itself from including the updates from the suspicious neighbor into its computations of clock skew and offset. This approach of containment works, however, under the assumptions that the nodes have a suf cient number of sources for the updates. For instance, in TPSN, children of the nodes nearby the malicious or compromised node must nd another parent, which may not always be feasible. Essentially, maintaining multiple trees comes with a price whereas in FTSP, no such cost exists. Utilizing the LS linear regression by each node in the network to compute the skew of its clock can further enhance security in time synchronization protocols. Algorithms such as RANSAC [16] can be used for this purpose. 17.4 ATTACKERS AND ATTACKS The possible attacks against time synchronization protocols depend on the nature and capabilities of the attackers. We will rst identify three different types of attackers, outline the types of attacks they are capable of, and then discuss the various types of defenses proposed against these types of attacks. We will describe the system with the characters regularly used in the description of cryptographic protocols. We assume that Alice and Bob (and, potentially, additional nodes Carol, Dave, and so on) are engaging in a time synchronization process. The malicious outsider Malory is a wireless device inserted in the range of the nodes of the sensor network, which has the ability to send and receive packets. We assume that the attacker can eavesdrop on any ongoing transmission; we can also assume that the attacker can eavesdrop on any ongoing transmission and that the attacker can transmit messages which are physically indistinguishable from the other nodes messages. However, this type of attacker does not have access to keys or other con dential information, other than what it can infer from eavesdropping on transmissions. Attacker with Jamming and Replay Ability. Jimmy is an attacker which has the ability to jam the message, record it, and possibly replay it at later time. This type of attack is called a pulse delay attack. Although, in principle, the existence of jamming can be detected, it requires signi cant resources; by default, most nodes are not prepared for it. A compromised node is a node that was taken over by the attacker. We will call this Zach (for zombie). One example of this is the physical capture of the node by an attacker, although a node can, in principle, be compromised with purely software methods. Compromised nodes have access to all the keys and other information of the original node, and they represent the most dif cult type of attacker to defend against.
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