SECURITY ISSUES AND COUNTERMEASURES IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS in .NET framework

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Figure 16.1. P eeger s four classes of systems security threats.
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Node Subversion. Capture of a node may reveal its information including disclosure of cryptographic keys, hence compromising the whole sensor net. False Node. Addition of a malicious node by an adversary to inject the malicious data, false node would be computationally robust to lure other nodes to send data to it. Node Malfunction. A malfunctioning node will generate inaccurate data that would jeopardize the integrity of a sensor net, especially when that node is a data aggregating node for example, a cluster leader. Node Outage. What happens when a cluster leader stops functioning Sensor net protocols should be robust enough to mitigate the effects of node outages by providing an alternate route. Message Corruption. When contents of a message are modi ed by an attacker, it compromises the message integrity. Traf c Analysis. Even if the message transfer is encrypted in sensor networks, its still leaves the high probability of analysis of communication patterns and sensor activities revealing enough information to enable an adversary to cause more malicious harm to sensor networks. 16.4.3 Security Attacks in Sensor Networks Chris Karlof et al. [5] have presented detailed attacks in sensor networks which are described in the following section. Table 16.1 lists these attacks.
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TABLE 16.1. Security Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Spoofed, altered, or replayed routing information Selective forwarding Create routing loop, attract or repel network traf c, extend or shorten source routes, generate false error messages, etc. Either in-path or beneath path by deliberate jamming, allows to control which information is forwarded. A malicious node acts like a black hole and refuses to forward every packet it receives. Attracting traf c to a speci c node for example, to prepare selective forwarding. A single node presents multiple identities, allows us to reduce the effectiveness of fault-tolerant schemes such as distributed storage and multipath. Tunneling of messages over alternative low-latency links to confuse the routing protocol, thereby creating sinkholes, etc. An attacker sends or replays a routing protocols hello packets with more energy.
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Routing Loops. In sensor networks, routing loops attack the information exchanged between nodes. False error messages are generated when an attacker alters and replays the routing information. Routing loops attract or repel the network traf c and increase node-to-node latency. Selective Forwarding. Selective forwarding is a way to in uence the network traf c by believing that all the participating nodes in network are reliable to forward the message. In selective forwarding attack, malicious nodes simply drop certain messages instead of forwarding every message. Once a malicious node cherry picks on the messages, it reduces the latency and deceives the neighboring nodes that they are on a shorter route. Effectiveness of this attack depends on two factors. First is the location of the malicious node. the closer it is to the base station, the more traf c it will attract. Second is the percentage of messages it drops. When a selective forwarder drops more messages and forwards less, it retains its energy level, thus remaining powerful to trick the neighboring nodes. Sinkhole Attacks. In sinkhole attacks, an adversary attracts the traf c to a compromised node. The simplest way of creating a sinkhole is to place a malicious node where it can attract most of the traf c, possibly closer to the base station or malicious node itself, which deceptively acts as a base station. One reason for sinkhole attacks is to make selective forwarding possible to attract the traf c toward a compromised node. The nature of sensor networks where all the traf c ows toward one base station makes this type of attack more susceptible.
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SECURITY ISSUES AND COUNTERMEASURES IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
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Sybil Attacks. This is, a type of attack where a node creates multiple illegitimate identities in sensor networks either by fabricating or stealing the identities of legitimate nodes. Sybil attacks can be used against routing algorithms and topology maintenance; it reduces the effectiveness of fault-tolerant schemes such as distributed storage and dispersity. Another malicious factor is geographic routing where a Sybil node can appear at more than one place simultaneously. Wormholes. In wormhole attacks, an adversary positioned closer to the base station can completely disrupt the traf c by tunneling messages over a low-latency link. Here an adversary convinces the nodes which are multihop away that they are closer to the base station. This creates a sinkhole because an adversary on the other side of the sinkhole provides a better route to the base station. Hello Flood Attacks. This involves broadcasting a message with stronger transmission power and pretending that the HELLO message is coming from the base station. Message receiving nodes assume that the HELLO message sending node is the closest one and they try to send all their messages through this node. In this type of attack, all nodes will be responding to HELLO oods and wasting the energies. The real base station will also be broadcasting the similar messages but will have only a few nodes responding to it. DoS Attacks. Denial of service attacks occur at a physical level, causing radio jamming, interfering with the network protocol, battery exhaustion, and so on. 16.4.4 Layering-Based Security Approach Application Layer. Data are collected and managed at application layer therefore it is important to ensure the reliability of data. Wagner [6] has presented a resilient aggregation scheme that is applicable to a cluster-based network where a cluster leader acts as an aggregator in sensor networks. However, this technique is applicable if the aggregating node is in the range with all the source nodes and there is no intervening aggregator between the aggregator and source nodes. In the hierarchical clustering approach, a communication channel between the aggregator and base station has potentially limited bandwidth because the cluster leader as an aggregator itself is a sensor node [6, 7]. To prove the validity of the aggregation, cluster leaders use the cryptographic techniques to ensure the data reliability. We will discuss the cryptography in key management section. Network Layer. The network layer is responsible for routing of messages from node to node, node to cluster leader, cluster leaders to cluster leaders, cluster leaders to the base station, and vice versa. Routing protocols in sensor networks are of two types: (1) ID-based protocols, in which packets are routed to the destination based on the IDs speci ed in the packets,
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