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Success Rate
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0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000
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Number of Events LTP VTRP
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Figure 15.11. Success rate (I s ) for LTP and VTRP for multiple events (n = 5000). P
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ENERGY-EFFICIENT ALGORITHMS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
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1000 500
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Figure 15.12. Snapshots of the network showing alive particles when executing LTP at different time instances (n = 5000).
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This is clearly seen in Figure 15.12, where snapshots of the network are taken for different time instances. As soon as some particles around S die, LTP fails to deliver the remaining events. Essentially, VTRP manages the energy of the network in a more ef cient way. By examining Figure 15.13, we observe that VTRP ends up using slightly more energy than LTP in order to propagate more events to the control center. In fact, VTRP will force the particles to spend more energy so that their transmissions manage to reach S even if this will exhaust their power supplies. Again, this is clearly seen in Figure 15.14, where snapshots of the network are taken for different time instances. To get a more complete view on how each protocol manages the energy resources of the particles, Figures 15.15 and 15.16 show the number of alive particles based on their distance from the sink. In these gures we have grouped the particles in 32 sets based on the division of the diagonal line connecting (0, 0) with (2000, 2000) in 32 sectors. We observe that for different time instances, the total number of alive particles that are close to the sink (for sections 1 10) drops as the time increases while the particles further away almost always remain active until the end of the experiment. Observe how VTRP forces the particles close to S to sacri ce their battery supplies in order to propagate more messages.
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VTRP: THE VARIABLE TRANSMISSION RANGE PROTOCOL
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5000 4500 4000
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Total Energy (J)
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3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
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Simulation Time (rounds) LTP VTRP
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Figure 15.13. Total energy (Etot ) for LTP and VTRP for multiple events (n = 5000).
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2000 2000
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1000 t=1
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1000 t = 2500
1000 t = 5000
1000 t = 7500
Figure 15.14. Snapshots of the network showing alive particles when executing VTRP at different time instances (n = 5000).
ENERGY-EFFICIENT ALGORITHMS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
400 350 Alive Particles 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Distance from Sink (section)
t=1 t=2000 t=4000 t=6000 t=8000
Figure 15.15. Alive particles (hA ) for LTP at different time instances (n = 5000).
In the last set of experiments we evaluate the performance of the four different functions for varying the transmission range of the particles when phase 3 is activated. We use a similar setting as in the previous experiments; that is, the eld size is 2000 m by 2000 m, and we deploy n = 5000 sensors and generate 9000 events. The result of this set of experiments are shown in Figures 15.17 15.22.
400 350 Alive Particles 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Distance from Sink (section)
t=1 t=2000 t=4000 t=6000 t=8000
Figure 15.16. Alive particles (hA ) for VTRP at different time instances (n = 5000).
VTRP: THE VARIABLE TRANSMISSION RANGE PROTOCOL
1 0.9 0.8 0.7 Success Rate 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 Number of Events
VTRPc VTRPm VTRPp VTRPr
Figure 15.17. Success rate (I s ) for the VTRP variations for multiple events (n = 5000). P
The results indicate that the constant progress seems to be the least ef cient function regarding the success rate metric (Figure 15.17), while for the other three functions the achieved success rate seems to be at similar levels. In fact, this is also the case for the total energy consumption (Figure 15.18). The constant progress function seems to be the most conservative; however; as in the case of LTP, it actually implies that VTRPC just fails to reach the sink.
5000 4500 4000
Total Energy (J)
3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
Simulation Time (rounds)