QoS-BASED ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WSNs in Visual Studio .NET

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QoS-BASED ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WSNs
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determine their distance to the sink.) Non-leaf nodes summarize and forward the aggregated data to their parents in the tree. To reduce the execution time of EAD processing, a topology-based algorithm is used which preprocesses the network topology to ensure that all sensors are are spanned by the EAD tree even though a subset of sensors participate in EAD execution. The outline of the two algorithms used in EAD are given in Figures 13.5 and 13.6.
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Receive_Control_Packet: n: Current node n.nodeId : Unique ID attribute of n n.EAD_ type : Type attribute of n (0: undetermined, 1: leaf, 2: non-leaf ) n.EAD_ previous_ type : Previous type attribute of n n.EAD_ level : Current level attribute of n n.EAD_ parent : Distance attribute of n to the previous hop n.EAD has child : Boolean attribute of n indicating if it has children sink: P : Received packet P.ead type : Type of the source of P P.ead level : Level of the source of P P.ead parent : Parent node of the source of P P.source add: Source address of P 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. n.EAD previous type := n.EAD type IF n.EAD type == 0 IF P.ead type == 2 n.EAD type := 1 n.EAD level := P.ead level + 1 n.EAD parent := P.source addr ELSE IFP.ead type == 1 n.EAD type := 2 n.EAD level := P.ead level + 1 n.EAD parent := P.source addr Call nalEADStatusUpdate function Send control packet to 1-hop neighbors ELSE IF n.EAD type == 1 IF P.ead parent == n.nodeId n.EAD type := 2 Call nalEADStatusUpdate function Send control packet to 1-hop neighbors ELSE IF n.EAD type == 2 IF P.ead type == 2 AND P.ead parent == n.nodeId n.EAD type := 2 Call nalEADStatusUpdate function Send control packet to 1-hop neighbors IF P.ead parent == nodeId n.EAD has child := T RU E n.EAD type := 2
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Figure 13.5. Control packet reception procedure used in the EAD algorithm.
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nalEADStatusUpdate: n: Current node P: Received packet 1. IF P.ead parent == nodeId 2. n.EAD has child := T RU E 3. IF n.EAD has child == T RU E 4. n.EAD type := 2 5. ELSE IF n.EAD previous type! = 0 AND n.EAD has child == FALSE 6. n.EAD type := 1
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Figure 13.6. EAD status update procedure used in the EAD algorithm.
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The performance of the EAD algorithm is compared with the performance of a simpli ed AODV without sensor mobility, and LEACH algorithms comparing total number of active nodes, UDP packet throughput, and energy expenditure. The presented results illustrate that EAD outperforms the other two algorithms with respect to these performance metrics. Furthermore, it is shown that there is a tradeoff between system lifetime and system throughput when shorter or longer EAD refresh periods are chosen. Small refresh intervals enable better throughput but require more energy. Moreover, it is concluded that there is no tradeoff between the initialization and data transmit phases of the EAD algorithm. 13.4.5 Reliable Information Forwarding Using Multiple Paths [23] Data dissemination protocols which are not adaptive to channel error rates and do not support information awareness either spend excessive amount of resources or fail to deliver important information with suf cient reliability. Reliable information forwarding using multiple paths (ReInForM) [23] is a protocol for WSNs to support information awareness, such that the reliability of data transfer depends on the information content despite the presence of signi cant channel errors. To de ne the desired reliability levels, ReInForM assigns different priority levels to data packets. Depending on the priority level, multiple copies of the data packets are delivered along multiple paths. Hence, ReInForM relies heavily on the existence of multiple paths between a source and a destination, which is generally available in large-scale WSNs. The simulations investigating the existence and number of edge-disjoint paths show that a network slightly denser than a minimally connected graph is suf cient to have as many edge-disjoint paths as the average node degree. The deviation in the number of hops of these paths is found to be less than two hops, which suggests that the paths have nearly identical lengths. Hence, data delivery on these paths has comparable latency and ef cient load balancing among multiple paths is possible. Under ReInForM, the source node of a packet determines the importance of the information in the packet and decides on a reliability level (rs ). Using the local channel
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