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strenght is maximum [19]. Alternatively, higher directionality of the beacon signals can be achieved by using optical signals, such as a laser, as described in reference 18. Errors will also be caused by nonidentical angular speeds and errors in estimating the initial phase references 1 , 2 , and 3 . However, these are relatively easy to correct by appropriate infrastructure control mechanisms. Experimental Implementation. To provide a deeper understanding of the issues concerning implementing such a scheme, details of an experimental prototype development of this scheme are described in this section. The prototype was designed with the goal of enabling Crossbow manufactured mica2 wireless sensor nodes (the Berkeley motes) to self-localize with minimum additional cost in a laboratory setting. Each mica2 mote consists of the MPR410CB processor and radio platform that is equipped with an Atmel ATmega128L processor, 128-kB program ash memory, 512-kB measurement ash, a 10-bit analog to digital converter (ADC), and 433-MHz radio interface. The motes were equipped with the MTS310 sensor board that has a photosensor along with a number of other analog sensors such as microphone, accelerometer, thermistor, and a magnetometer. The processor runs the Tinyos software operating system developed by UC Berkeley, which supports large-scale self-con guring sensor networking [21]. The beacon generators use optical lasers that are suitable for indoor use and are also cost effective. The primary element in these modules is an Apinex 3-mW 650-nm semiconductor laser equipped with a diffraction grating for line generation and a plastic lens that can be used to adjust the width and fan angle of the generated optical line. In order to make the three beacon signals identi able, a varying number of laser line generators were used for each beacon that is, a single laser line generator for beacon-1, a double line for beacon-2, and a triple line for beacon-3.
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Figure 12.8. Beacon generator assemblies for (a) beacon-1, (b) beacon-2, and (c) beacon-3. The corresponding beacons signals are depicted in (d), (e), and (f), respectively.
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The problem of maintaining identical angular rotations for all three beacon generator assemblies was solved by using stepper motors, all driven by a common controller. The assembly of laser sources, gearbox for speed control, and stepper motor at each beacon generator were mounted on a pole at a height of 6 feet with the axes of the lasers pointing down at an approximate angle of 45 (see Figure 12.8). Since initial phase errors are critical for location accuracy and it is very dif cult to align three independent sources perfectly, a pilot sensor node is located at the farthest corner of the area for estimating the angles 1 and 2 . Initially all sensor nodes are set to standby until the pilot node determines these phase references. Once that is done, the pilot node broadcasts the estimates, which triggers the nodes in the network to start self localizing by measuring the angles and at their locations. Each mote is programmed to identify single, double, and triple beams, by counting optical signals detected within a small window of time. Adequate measures are incorporated to reduce missed and false detections from overlapping or interfering signals. The details are shown in Figure 12.9.
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/* Wait for pilot message and then start sampling and localization */ if packet received from pilot then begin read 1 and 2 from pilot message start obtaining periodic samples s[i] /* Begin beam counter window when first signal peak is detected*/ if ((s[i]>s[i-1]+8) AND (win_flag==0)) then begin beam++; win_flag:=1; end timer++; /* Count beams within beam counter window */ if (win_flag==1) then begin win_time++; if ((s[i],s[i-1]-8) AND (s[1-1]<s[i-2])) then begin beacon++ end if end of beam counter window then begin detected[beam]:=beacon; t[beam]:=timer; win_flag:=0; beacon:=0; win_time:=0; end /* At the end of cycle, check for errors and localize */ if ((beam==4) AND (win_flag==0)) then begin if (detected[1]+detected[2]+detected[3]==6) then begin :=2 /(t[4]-t[1]); if (detected[1]==1) then begin := (t[2]-t[1])end if (detected[1]==2) then begin
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(t[3]-t[2])-
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:= (t[4]-t[3])- 1 ; := (t[2]-t[1])- 2 ; end if (detected[1]==3) then begin := (t[3]-t[2])- 1 ; := (t[4]-t[3])- 2 ; end (x p ,y p ) locate( , ) /* apply equation (5) */ end beam:=0; timer:=0 end end
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