LOCALIZATION SYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS in VS .NET

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LOCALIZATION SYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
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is guaranteed, it is possible to estimate a node position using only two reference neighbors. When a node has a position information of only two reference neighbors, a pair of possible points results from the system: One is the right position of the unknown node and the other is a wrong estimate (Figure 11.14b). Once the direction of the
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Figure 11.14. (a) The DPE doing a directed localization recursion. and (b) A position estimate using only two reference neighbors. A pair of possible solutions result from the system. The right position of the node is the most distant point from the recursion origin.
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LOCALIZATION ALGORITHM
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Figure 11.15. Example and phases of the DPE. (a) First, the beacon nodes starts the recursion. (b) Then a node determines its (two) reference nodes, (c) estimates its position, and (d) then becomes a reference by broadcasting this information.
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localization recursion is kept, it is easy to choose between the two possible solutions: The most distant point from the recursion origin is the right position of the unknown node. This is the base of the DPE [11, 12]. The DPE algorithm is divided into four phases (Figure 11.15). In the rst phase, the recursion of such a system is started from a single point by the beacon structure (Figure 11.15a). In the second phase, a node determines its (two) reference nodes and estimate its distances to these nodes (Figure 11.15b). In the third phase, the node computes its position (Figure 11.15c), and then becomes a reference by sending this information to its neighbors (fourth phase, Figure 11.15d). This way, the recursion of such a system goes from the center to the edge of the WSN. The complete DPE algorithm is shown in Algorithm 3, and its communication complexity is the same as that of ooding. This approach leads to a localization system that can work in a low dense sensor network. Besides, the controlled way in which the recursion is made will also lead to a system with lower and predictable errors. But like the RPE, this technique has the disadvantage of propagating the localization error. 11.4.4 Localization with a Mobile Beacon (LMB) Some recent works [42, 46] have proposed the use of mobile beacons to assist the nodes of the WSN in estimating their positions. A mobile beacon is a node that is aware of its position (e.g., equipped with a Gps receiver) and that has the ability to move among the sensor eld. This beacon can be a human operator, an unmanned vehicle, an aircraft, or a robot. The localization algorithm proposed in reference 42 uses mobile beacons to allow the nodes to compute their positions, while in reference 46 the mobile beacon itself computes the position of the nodes. The system operation in reference 42 is quite simple. Once the nodes are deployed, the mobile beacon travels through the sensor eld broadcasting messages that contain its current coordinates. When a free node receives more than three messages from the mobile beacon, it computes its position, using a probabilistic approach, based on the received coordinates and on the RSSI distance estimations. Figure 11.16 illustrates
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LOCALIZATION SYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
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ALGORITHM 3. DPE Localization Algorithm Variables:
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1: positionsi = {Set of received positions.} 2: referencesi = {Set of reference nodes.}
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Input:
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3: msgi = nil.
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Action: 4: if ni B then {If this node is a beacon node.} 5: (xi , yi ) := getGpsPosition(); 6: Send position(xi , yi ) to all nj Neigi . 7: end if Input:
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8: msgi = position(xk , yk ) such that distk = distanceEstimation(msgi ).
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Action: 9: if ni U then {If this node is an unknown node.} positionsi := positionsi {(xk , yk , distk )}; 10: Re Start waitTimer. 12: end if Input:
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