COMPARING DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO MOBILITY in .NET framework

Creating QR Code in .NET framework COMPARING DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO MOBILITY
COMPARING DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO MOBILITY
Recognize Quick Response Code In VS .NET
Using Barcode Control SDK for .NET framework Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Figure 10.3. Sink optimum routes produced by constraints (10.4) to (10.7). (a) A sink route. (b) A disjoint cycle in the sink route.
Print Quick Response Code In VS .NET
Using Barcode generation for .NET framework Control to generate, create QR Code 2d barcode image in .NET applications.
MOBILITY IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
QR-Code Scanner In VS .NET
Using Barcode reader for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Figure 10.4. Two adjacent physical sites, n + m logical sites and their interconnections.
Creating Bar Code In .NET Framework
Using Barcode printer for .NET framework Control to generate, create barcode image in .NET applications.
The power consumption rate cik of each node i N when the sink sojourns at site k S can be computed in a different way (e.g., analytically [54]), or provided as input to the model from simulations or from real-data traf c traces [9, 10]. In other words, the model can be customized to nd the optimum lifetime for different routing protocols (by computing the corresponding values of bik and cik ). The model does not allow the sink to pass twice for the same site. However, this can be made possible by having a single physical represented by h logical sites, where h is the number of times we want the sink to be able to pass through that site. The logical sites have no arcs between them and are connected to all the (logical) sites of adjacent (physical) sites. Figure 10.4 concerns the case of two adjacent physical sites and their logical sites. With this simple modi cation, optimal lifetime is obtained where the sink is allowed to visit each site at most h times. The MILP formulation is an improvement over previously proposed models. The model is independent of a number of factors such as sensor node deployment and sensor density, the sink site topology, the size and shape of the geographic area of deployment, and the sensor node technical features such as transmission radius, energy model, and so on. The formulation also includes a number of realistic constraints, such as the noninstantaneous movement of sink between sites potentially far apart from each other. Most importantly, and differently from all previously proposed LP solutions, this formulation explicitly considers costs for changing location. The Greedy Maximum Residual Energy (GMRE) Protocol. The solution presented above determines the movements and the sojourn times of the mobile sink at different sites so that network lifetime is maximized. Movements and times are determined by solving the described analytical model by providing as input a host of information concerning the whole networks. In other words, this solution is centralized: Information is collected at a solver and the resulting output is the best route for the sink. Collecting information about network condition can be overwhelmingly expensive in terms of energy and time, and most of the times it is unfeasible in resource constrained networks like WSNs. Therefore, protocols for controlled mobility have to be designed and deployed that can realistically be deployed in WSNs. The optimality is traded off for feasibility, as often happens. This motivates the de nition of the following heuristic.
Bar Code Reader In .NET Framework
Using Barcode decoder for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications.
COMPARING DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO MOBILITY
Creating QR-Code In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode maker for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in .NET framework applications.
In the Greedy Maximum Residual Energy (GMRE) protocol [9, 10] the sink periodically moves to a new site. More speci cally, every tmin , it decides whether to move or to stay at the current site. If it moves, the sink selects the site within dmax from its current position surrounded by nodes that have the most energy left. The choice is performed greedily that is, moving toward the site that at the current time appears the best to move to. In time, this should highly likely result in balanced energy consumption at the network nodes and therefore result in longer network lifetime. For deciding whether to move or not, the sink collects information about the residual energy at the nodes around each of the potential future sites (we call this energy value the residual energy at the site) and compares it with the residual energy at the current site. If there are adjacent sites with a residual energy higher than that at the current site, the sink moves to the site with the highest residual energy (selecting randomly among sites with the same residual energy in case of ties). Otherwise the sink stays at the current location. The communication to the sink of the energy level at other network locations proceeds in two phases. First Phase. For each of the adjacent sites the sink identi es one sentinel sensor node that measures and reports the residual energy at the site when requested by the sink. The second phase concerns the sink inquiring the sentinels. This happens every time the sink has to decide to move. To implement the rst phase, we take advantage of the ooding performed by the sink when it makes the nodes aware of its new location. For this heuristic protocol we assume that a node that is in the transmission vicinity of a site (i.e., whose Euclidean distance from a site is less than or equal to the nodes transmission range) is aware of that. This can be obtained by endowing the nodes with a suitable localization mechanism (such as one of those described in references 63 and 64). The ooding message contains the coordinates of the current location of the sink. Upon receiving this packet, a node knows if it is in the vicinity of a possible future sink site. If this is the case, it sends to the sink a (small) packet to candidate itself as sentinel. When the sink receives these packets, it decides which is the sentinel for a given site. An example of the sentinel identi cation mechanism is depicted in Figure 10.5. The sink current site E is indicated by a triangle. The squares A, B, C, D, F , G, H, and I identify the adjacent sink sites. The gure shows what happens upon ooding the route construction message. Potential sentinels for sink site G are marked as black circles. Their distance from G is less than or equal to the node transmission range. When such potential sentinels receive the ooded message, they answer back to the sink, identifying themselves as candidates. It is the sink that selects the (single) sentinel for a given possible future site. Second Phase. At the time the sink has to decide whether to move or not, it interrogates the selected sentinels about the residual energy at their sites by sending them a (small) packet. At this time the sentinels query their neighboring sensor nodes about their residual energy and communicate back to the sink the minimum of the obtained values or any suitable function that can express how critical (for the network lifetime) it is to place the sink in that area. This information enables the sink to select the next site, depending on the residual energy of its area.
QR Code 2d Barcode Drawer In VS .NET
Using Barcode encoder for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in ASP.NET applications.
QR Code ISO/IEC18004 Printer In VB.NET
Using Barcode creation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in VS .NET applications.
Bar Code Maker In .NET Framework
Using Barcode printer for VS .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in .NET framework applications.
Drawing Code 2 Of 5 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode drawer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 2 of 5 image in .NET applications.
Print Code 3/9 In C#.NET
Using Barcode generator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 3 of 9 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Painting Data Matrix In .NET
Using Barcode drawer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in ASP.NET applications.
Bar Code Creation In VB.NET
Using Barcode drawer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in .NET applications.
EAN 13 Drawer In Visual C#
Using Barcode creator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create GS1 - 13 image in .NET applications.