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Figure 9.21. Connected inter-base-station network.
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neighbors are to move to restore broken links. For example, in Figure 9.21, if BS3 is to move toward BS2 , BS5 would follow through to avoid being disconnected from the network. In order to prevent simultaneous relocations, a mutual-exclusion-based mechanism is used. The idea is to access to a global token exclusively in order to perform the relocation. A base station will cease any motion until a token is granted.
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9.5 CONCLUSION Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have attracted lots of attention in recent years due to their potential in many applications such as border protection and combat eld surveillance. Given the criticality of such applications, maintaining a dependable operation of the network is a fundamental objective. However, the resourceconstrained nature of sensor nodes and the ad hoc formation of the network, often coupled with an unattended deployment, pose nonconventional challenges and motivate the need for special techniques for dependable design and management of WSNs. In this chapter, we have discussed the effect node placement strategies on the dependability of WSNs. We categorized the various approaches in the literature on sensor and base-station positioning for enhanced dependability. We have further highlighted the potential of dynamic repositioning of the base-station and sensor nodes, as a viable means for increasing the dependability of WSNs. Unlike the initial careful placement, node repositioning can assist in dealing with dynamic variations in the network resources and surrounding environment. We have identi ed the technical issues pertaining to relocating the nodes namely, when to reposition a node, where to move it, and how to manage the network while the node is in motion. We have discussed sample techniques that employ sensor and base-station relocation for boosting the coverage, tolerating node failure, extending network lifetime, increasing responsiveness in data delivery, and protecting the network assets. We have further identi ed the coordinated multinode repositioning problem as an open area for research.
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9.6 EXERCISES 1. List some examples of sensor network applications and enumerate the dependability requirements that these applications are subject to. Discuss how node placement affects the network dependability attributes in the context of these applications. 2. What are the most important metrics to be considered in performing sensor relocation Discuss possible tradeoffs among these metrics. 3. When would dynamic node placement be most appropriate 4. How would the communication range of relay and sensor nodes affect the complexity and placement strategy of relay nodes 5. Describe some scenarios for which dynamic placement of nodes can hurt the network performance rather than enhancing it.
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NODE POSITIONING FOR INCREASED DEPENDABILITY OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
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6. Based on the analysis and deployment techniques discussed in this chapter, how would you design a sensor network for the following applications (i) Underwater surveillance, (ii) Border protection, and (iii) Lunar exploration. 7. Pick a randomly deployed sensor network with ve nodes. Show the nal con guration of the sensor network after applying the Voronoi-based sensor relocation (VOR) technique of reference 48. 8. Discuss the relation between network clustering and the multiple base-station placement problems. How would the order of applying the clustering and placement techniques affect the network design/performance
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
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1. I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci. Wireless sensor networks: A survey. Computer Networks, 38:393 422, 2002. 2. C.-Y. Chong and S. P. Kumar. Sensor networks: Evolution, opportunities, and challenges. Proceedings of the IEEE, 91(8):1247 1256, 2003. 3. K. Akkaya and M. Younis. A survey on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. Elsevier Journal of Ad Hoc Networks, 3(3):325 349, 2005. 4. P. Naik and K. M. Sivalingam. A survey of MAC protocols for sensor networks. In Wireless Sensor Networks, C. S. Raghavendra, K. M. Sivalingam, and T. Znati, editors. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, 93 107. 5. N. Sadagopan, B. Krishnamachari, and A. Helmy. Active query forwarding in sensor networks (ACQUIRE). Elsevier Journal of Ad Hoc Networks, 3(1):91 113, 2005. 6. A. Cerpa and D. Estrin, ASCENT: Adaptive self-con guring sensor networks topologies. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 3(3):272 285, July-August 2004. 7. A. Efrat, S. Har-Peled, and J. S. B. Mitchell. Approximation algorithms for two optimal location problems in sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems (Broadnets 2005), pp. 714 723, Boston, MA, October 2005. 8. X. Cheng, DZ Du, L. Wang, and B. Xu. Relay sensor placement in wireless sensor networks. ACM/Springer Journal of Wireless Networks, 14(3):347 355, June 2008. 9. E. L. Lloyd and G. Xue. Relay node placement in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 56(1):134 138, January 2007. 10. S. Poduri, S. Pattem, B. Krishnamachari, and G. S. Sukhatme. Sensor network con guration and the curse of dimensionality. In Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Workshop on Embedded Networked Sensors, Cambridge, MA, May 2006. 11. A. Bogdanov, E. Maneva, and S. Riesenfeld, Power-aware base station positioning for sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM 2004), pp. 575 585, Hong Kong, March 2004. 12. J. Pan, L. Cai, Y. T. Hou, Y. Shi, and S. X. Shen. Optimal base-station locations in twotiered wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 4(5):458 473, September/October 2005.
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