Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks: Present and Future in .NET

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Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks: Present and Future
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AZZEDINE BOUKERCHE
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School of Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada
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EDUARDO F. NAKAMURA
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Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil; and FUCAPI Analysis, Research, and Technological Innovation Center, Brazil
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ANTONIO A. F. LOUREIRO
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Department of Computer Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
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1.1 INTRODUCTION Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) pose new research challenges related to the design of algorithms, network protocols, and software that will enable the development of applications based on sensor devices. Sensor networks are composed of cooperating sensor nodes that can perceive the environment to monitor physical phenomena and events of interest. WSNs are envisioned to be applied in different applications, including, among others, habitat, environmental, and industrial monitoring, which have great potential bene ts for the society as a whole. The WSN design often employs some approaches as energy-aware techniques, in-network processing, multihop communication, and density control techniques to extend the network lifetime. In addition, WSNs should be resilient to failures due to different reasons such as physical destruction of nodes or energy depletion. Fault tolerance mechanisms should take advantage of nodal redundancy and distributed task processing. Several challenges still need to be overcome to have ubiquitous deployment of sensor networks. These challenges include dynamic topology, device heterogeneity, limited power capacity, lack of quality of service, application support, manufacturing quality, and ecological issues.
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Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks, Edited by Azzedine Boukerche Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons Inc.
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ALGORITHMS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: PRESENT AND FUTURE
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The capacity to transmit and receive data packets allows both information and control to be shared among sensor nodes but also to perform cooperative tasks, all based on different algorithms that are being speci cally designed for such networks. Some of the classes of algorithms for WSNs are brie y described in the following: r Centralized algorithms execute on a central node and usually bene t from a global network knowledge. This type of algorithm is not very common in WSNs because the cost of acquiring a global network knowledge is usually unfeasible in most WSNs. r Distributed algorithms are related to different computational models. In a WSN, the typical computational model is represented by a set of computational devices (sensor nodes) that can communicate among themselves using a message-passing mechanism. Thus, a distributed algorithm is an algorithm that executes on different sensor nodes and uses a message-passing technique. r Localized algorithms comprise a class of algorithms in which a node makes its decisions based on local and limited knowledge instead of a global network knowledge. Thus locality usually refers to the node s vicinity [1]. Algorithms for WSNs may also have some speci c features such as selfcon guration and self-organization, depending on the type of the target application. Self-con guration means the capacity of an algorithm to adjust its operational parameters according to the design requirements. For instance, whenever a given energy value is reached, a sensor node may reduce its transmission rate. Self-organization means the capacity of an algorithm to autonomously adapt to changes resulted from external interventions, such as topological changes (due to failures, mobility, or node inclusion) or reaction to a detected event, without the in uence of a centralized entity.
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1.2 WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: AN ALGORITHMIC PERSPECTIVE In the following, we present an overview of some algorithms for basic services (that can be used by other algorithms), data communication, management functions, applications, and data fusion. 1.2.1 Basic Services Some of the basic services that can be employed by other algorithms in wireless sensor networks are localization, node placement, and density control. Localization. The location problem consists in nding the geographic location of the nodes in a WSN, which can be computed by a central unit [2] or by sensor nodes in a distributed manner [3 8]. Essentially, the location discovery can be split in two stages: distance estimation and location computation [4]. Usually, the distance between two
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