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Utilities MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus
Figure 10.3 EAP utilities system management control units (Courtesy of Smiths Group now GE Aviation) with each other and with the remaining aircraft systems. This leads to the possibility of integrating the VMS using a series of data buses and one such architecture is shown in Figure 10.4. A major difference between the EAP and Euro ghter Utilities Management Systems and the VMS proposed for future aircraft is that high rate, closed loop servo systems have been included in the control concept. This generic architecture shows a number of control units associated with ight control, engine control and utilities/power management. This allows the
Advanced Systems
units to be closely tied to each other and to the sensors and actuators associated with the control task. In this scheme certain computers have responsibility for interfacing the VMS as a whole to the avionics system and to the pilot. This type of closely coupled control permits modes of operation that would be much more dif cult to control if the systems were not integrated into a VMS. For example the fuel management system on a ghter can be used to control the aircraft CG. The position of the CG in relation to the centre of lift determines the aircraft stability and trim drag. For optimum cruise the CG could be positioned at or near the neutral point to minimise trim drag. For combat the CG could be moved aft to make the aircraft more manoeuvrable. Therefore in this example there is an inter-reaction between ight control and utility control which allows optimum modes to be selected for various phases of ight.
Avionics Data Bus VMS Computer 1 VMS Computer 2 VMS Computer 3 VMS Data Bus
Vehicle Inferface Unit 1
Vehicle Interface Unit 2
Vehicle Interface Unit 3
Vehicle Interface Unit 4
Hydraulics
Fuel
Electrical
Oxygen
Gear
Lighting Secondary Power
Sensor Package
Engine Controller
Actuator Package
Engine Controller
Generic VMS architecture
Thermal management is an area which is becoming more important in combat aircraft such as the F-22 Raptor which is designed for persistent supersonic cruise operation. That is, the aircraft is designed to cruise for long periods at speeds of Mach 1.6 whereas previous ghters could only operate at such speeds during a short supersonic dash . This leads to the problem of where to sink all the thermal energy generated during high speed cruise. The inter-reaction of the fuel system (fuel being used as a heat sink) and the
More-Electric Aircraft
environmental control system, is of great importance in solving the problem. More energy-ef cient methods of extracting and utilising power from the engines can also help and is one of the reasons for studying the all-electric aircraft concept which is described in detail elsewhere in this chapter. Technology demonstration programs associated with the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) made major advances in this area as will be described later in this chapter. The US Air Force has embraced the VMS on recent programs in order that these improvements may be realised. Though the precise architectures may vary by programme depending upon the maturity of the various technologies, it is clear that many of the necessary technologies and building blocks are available and that such systems may be embodied without signi cant risk.
10.5 More-Electric Aircraft 10.5.1 Engine Power Offtakes
For the past few decades the way in which aircraft have extracted power from the engine has changed little though long standing studies exist which examine more electric means see references [4 to 13]. The three key methods or extracting energy from the engine have been: Electrical power by means of an accessory gearbox driven generator Hydraulic power by means of Engine Driven Pumps (EDPs) also run off the accessory gearbox but also by electrical and air driven means Pneumatic power achieved by bleeding air off the intermediate or HP compressor to provide energy for the environmental control system, cabin pressurisation and wing anti-icing system among others. High pressure air has also provided the means by which the engine is started with the air taken from a ground air start trolley, APU or another engine already running While the engine is in effect a highly optimised gas generator, there are penalties in extracting bleed air which are disproportionate when compared to the power being extracted. This becomes more acute as the bypass ratio increases: original turbofans had relatively low bypass ratios of 1.4 (bypass) to 1 (engine core); more recent designs 4:1 and next generation turbofans such as the GE GEnex and Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 are close to 10:1. Modern engines have pressure ratios of the order of 30 to 35:1 and are more sensitive to the extraction of bleed air from an increasingly smaller and much more highly tuned engine central core. The outcome is that to realise fully the bene ts of emerging engine technology, a different and more ef cient means of extracting power or energy for the aircraft systems becomes necessary. Ef cient energy extraction for the aircraft without adversely affecting the performance of the engine core and the engine as a whole becomes an imperative reason for changing the architectures and technology utilised. Figure 10.5 illustrates the differences between conventional power extraction using bleed air on the left versus a more-electric version