Key Helicopter Systems in Visual Studio .NET

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9.6 Key Helicopter Systems
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The basic principles of many helicopter systems are identical to similar systems in xed-wing aircraft. However, the unique nature of the helicopter places a different emphasis upon how these systems are implemented and also introduces a requirement for some totally new systems. A range of these systems
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Actuators AFCS AFCS Primary Mixing Actuators Pitch AFCS AFCS Secondary Mixing Actuators Trim SW Unit Roll
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Long Term Trim Actuation Short Term Dynamic Actuation
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Collective AFCS AFCS Yaw Actuators AFCS AFCS
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Yaw Pedals Parallel Actuation Series Actuation
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Figure 9.14 Typical helicopter full AFCS control
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Key Helicopter Systems
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MAIN ROTOR Aft Main Rotor Duplex Parallel Actuation Roll Pitch Coll Secondary Mixing Primary Mixing Right Left
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is described so that a comparison might be made with the xed-wing aircraft equivalent. They are: Engine and transmission system Hydraulic system Electrical system Health monitoring system Specialised helicopter systems
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9.6.1 Engine and Transmission System
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Many helicopters today have a number of engines to supply motive power to the rotor and transmission system. In fact, all but the smallest helicopters usually have two engines, and some larger ones have three. The need for multiple engines is obvious; helicopter lift is wholly dependent upon rotor speed, which in turn depends upon the power provided by the engines. In the event of engine failure it is still necessary to have power available to drive the rotor, therefore multiple engines are needed so that the remaining engine(s) can satisfy this requirement. Although it is possible to land a single-engined helicopter following engine failure, using a technique called auto-rotation, this mode of unpowered ight takes time to establish. If the helicopter is ying at around 500 ft or less then it is unlikely that safe auto-rotation recovery can be carried out. Engines are usually sized so that the aircraft can y for a period of time with one engine failed, except in the most extreme ight conditions:when the helicopter is ying heavily loaded or hot and high [2]. The EH 101 Merlin is tted with a variant of the General Electric T700-GE-401 turbo-shaft engines
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in the naval variant while civil and military versions are powered by the General Electric CT7-6, a variant of the T700 developed speci cally for the EH 101. Martin (1984) gives more detail regarding the development of the T700 family of engines [3]. A more recently developed engine available for this class of helicopter is the Rolls/Turbomeca RTM 322 which is designed to operate at 2100 shp (shaft horse power) and weighs around 530 lb. This engine is of a suitable size to power up-rated versions of the EH 101. It is being produced with a 50/50 work share by Rolls-Royce and Turbomeca and an indication of the engine con guration and work share is given in Figure 9.5. Bryanton (1985) and Buller and Lewis (1985) describe the development programme of the RTM 322 [4, 5]. The majority of new helicopters use gas turbines rather than internal combustion engines, for a variety of reasons. Most engines are electronically controlled using computers and over recent years control has become digital in nature, using Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC). These units are usually con gured with two lanes or channels of control, though, for a single-engined helicopter, a dual channel and a hydro-mechanical standby channel may be provided. Typical control laws which would be embodied are: Acceleration control. Acceleration control (of the gas generator) is for surge prevention and is done using either fuel ow scheduling using a control law such as: WF = f NH PC Where WF = Fuel ow and PC = Compressor discharge pressure The ratio: WF is a powerful parameter since it approximates fuel/air ratio as PC long as the high pressure turbine is choked. Deceleration limiting to prevent engine ameout may be similarly implemented NH control. More recently control of NH Dot as a function of engine inlet conditions is used together with surge recovery algorithms. (Note: NH Dot acceleration control is used by the venerable Adour engine using a dashpot that varies with altitude. This being implemented hydro-mechanically is not very sophisticated while modern NH Dot system implemented in software can be much more complex without penalty.) NH control is perhaps the most challenging issue in helicopter control since this is the control of power delivered to the rotor system. As the pilot makes sudden changes in collective, the gas turbine must respond immediately to deliver more gas horsepower in order to maintain an essentially constant rotor speed Maximum/minimum fuel ow limiting Torque limiter. Torque sharing between engines is also a common control requirement when isochronous rotor speed governing is employed