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The Robotics Institute of America adds some engineering jargon and emphasizes the robot s ability to shift from one task to another:
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A robot is a reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
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Somehow this de nition also leaves a sense of dissatisfaction. Insisting solely on manipulators is probably an omission: Who doubts that mobile vehicles like Mars rovers are robots But multifunctional Can t a robot be designed solely for welding of automobile parts And then, is it good that the de nition easily quali es our familiar home dishwasher as a robot It moves material through variable programmed motions, and the user reprograms it when choosing an appropriate cycle. These and other de nitions of a robot point to dangers that the business of de nitions entails: Appealing de nition candidates will likely invite undesired corollaries. In desperation, some robotics professionals have embraced the following definition:
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I don t know what a robot is but will recognize it when I see one.
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This one is certainly crisp and stops further discussion, but it suffers from the lack of speci city. (Try, for example, to replace robot by grizzly bear it works.) A good de nition tends to avoid explicitly citing material components necessary to make the device work. That should be implicit and should leave enough room for innovation within the de ned function. Implicit in the de nitions above is that a robot must include mechanics (body and motors) and a computing device. Combining mechanics and computing helps distinguish a robot from a computer: Both carry out large amounts of calculations, but a computer has information at its input and information at its output, whereas a robot has information at its input and motion at its output. Explicitly or implicitly, it is clear that sensing should be added as the third necessary component. Here one may want to distinguish external sensing that the machine uses to acquire information about the surrounding world (say, vision, touch, proximity sensing, force sensing) from internal sensing used to acquire information about the machine s own well-being (temperature sensors, pressure sensors, etc.). This addition would help disqualify automobiles and dishwashers as robots (though even that is not entirely foolproof). Perhaps more ominously, adding external sensing as a necessary component may cause devastation in the ranks of robots. If the robot uses sensing to obtain information about its surroundings, it would be logical to suggest that it must be using it to react to changes in the surrounding world. The trouble is that this innocent logic disquali es a good 95 98% of today s robots as robots, for the simple reason that all those robots are designed to work in a highly structured environment of a factory oor, which assumes no unpredictable changes.
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BASIC CONCEPTS
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With an eye on the primary subject of this book robots capable of handling tasks in an unstructured environment we accept that reacting to sensing data is essential for a robot s being a robot. The de nition of a robot accepted in this text is as follows:
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A robot is an automatic or semiautomatic machine capable of purposeful motion in response to its surroundings in an unstructured environment.
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Added in parentheses or seen as unavoidably tied to the de ned ability is a clause that a robot must include mechanical, computing, and sensing components. While this de nition disquali es many of today s robots as robots, it satis es what for centuries people intuitively meant by robots which is not a bad thing. Purists may still point to the vagueness of some concepts, like purposeful (intelligent) and unstructured. This is true of all other attempts above and of human de nitions in general. Be it as it may, for the purpose of this book this is a working de nition, and we will leave it at that. 1.2.2 Space. Objects A robot operates in its environment (workspace, work cell). The real-world robot environment appears either in two-dimensional space (2D), as, for example, with a mobile robot moving on the hospital oor, or in three-dimensional space (3D), as with an arm manipulator doing car body painting. Robot workspace is physical continuous space. Depending on approaches to motion planning, one can model the robot workspace as continuous or discrete. Robotics deals with moving or still objects. Each object may be
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A point for example, an abstract robot automaton used for algorithm development A rigid body for example, boxes in a warehouse, autonomous vehicles, arm links A hinged body made of rigid bodies for example, a robot arm manipulator
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The robot environment may includes obstacles. Obstacles are objects; depending on the model used and space dimensionality, obstacles can be
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Points Polygonal (polyhedral) objects, which can be rigid or hinged bodies Other analytically described objects Arbitrarily shaped (physically realizable) objects
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1.2.3 Input Information. Sensing Similar to humans and animals, robots need input information in order to plan their motion. As discussed above, there may be two situations: (a) Complete information about all objects in the robot environment is available. (b) There is
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