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human. Notice the difference between the positions of the master arm and the slave arm: The operator clearly intended the arm to go much lower than it did.7 The value of this experiment is more than a joke exercise. Imagine a robot assistant working next to an astronaut, controlled via teleoperation by a remote operator. If the operator is on the ground, a signal transmission delay due to large distance will introduce a bias into the operator s perception of the scene compared to the actual scene at the moment. Imagine that the operator makes a mistake, guiding the robot directly onto the astronaut. The robot behavior demonstrated in the Figure 8.11 experiment would save the situation. Finally, the pictures shown in Figure 8.12 relate to the autonomous robot operation in the setting 3 above. A good way to demonstrate robot interaction with a nearby moving human is dance. If we can make the robot behave the way two human partners expect each other to move in a dance, we can count on the robot s adequate behavior in a human robot crew. During the dance the partners stay close to each other. They continuously react to each other s movement. One partner does not have to look intently at the other partner at all times; he or she is con dent that their partner will make sure that no collision takes place. For each of them it is not enough to know that his/her head or hand is safe: There is an expectation that one s whole body is safe from unpredictable collisions. Hence the interaction involves their whole bodies. A demonstration of this kind of interaction is a demonstration of a highly coupled robot human team operation. With these ideas in mind, we have carried out a special project between the University of Wisconsin (UW) Robotics Laboratory, on the one hand, and the UW Dance Department, on the other hand. Professor Tibor Zana from the UW Dance Department, who is also Artistic Director of the Wisconsin Dance Ensemble, choreographed the dance. The video frames shown in Figure 8.12 are from the resulting videos. Again, still pictures are not a good medium for showing motion: A color video looks much more interesting than these black-and-white still pictures. The robot motion planning shown in these pictures was fully autonomous. The robot was not programmed for any speci c paths. (Tests with prede ned paths, which the robot would modify on the y when reacting to the ballerina s movement, have also been tried.) The robot was only programmed to stay out of the ballerina s way and to move toward her when losing the proximity contact with her. In other words, the actual motion was in response to the ballerina movement. In a typical pair dance (e.g., waltz, tango, foxtrot, swing), one partner is the leader and the other partner is the follower. In our robot ballerina dance the ballerina was the leader. This is admittedly not a typical dance convention today, but aren t robots the sign of the future! The robot behavior in these experiments looks convincing and somehow alive. We humans are not used to seeing machines behave like humans or
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For those romantically inclined after reading Isaac Asimov s robotic laws, the same would happen if the obstacle was not a human but a chair.
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SENSITIVE SKIN DESIGNING AN ALL-SENSITIVE ROBOT ARM MANIPULATOR
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animals following us and staying out of our way the way a dog or a cat do. The last thing one thinks of when rst seeing these arm manipulators, large and heavy chunks of steel, would be the word gentle. And yet this is what one thinks when watching this dance. The robot follows the ballerina, steps back when she changes her direction of motion, and hesitates when the ballerina puts her arms around the robot (as if thinking, Where should I move now ). The dance looks fascinating, for now at least: There are many such scenes in our future, with robots much smarter and much more sensitive and also capable of doing what we want them to do.
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