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Figure 7.10 The physical two-link arm used in the tests of human performance.
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up more often than younger subjects before reaching the solution. (c) The level of one s education and professional orientation seems to play an insigni cant role: Secretaries do as well or as poorly as mechanical engineering PhDs or professional pilots, who pride themselves in their spatial reasoning.
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The Physical Arm Test Setup. This experimental system has been set up in a special booth, with about 5 ft by 5 ft oor area, enough to accommodate a table with the two-link arm and obstacles, and a standing subject. The inside of the booth is painted black, to help with the move in the dark test. For a valid comparison of subjects performance with the virtual environment test, the physical arm and obstacles (Figure 7.10) are proportionally similar to those in Figure 7.5. (Only two obstacles can be clearly seen in Figure 7.10; obstacle O1 of Figure 7.5 was replaced for technical reasons by two stops; see Figure 7.10.) For the subjects convenience the arm is positioned on a slightly slanted table. Each arm link is about 2 ft long. A subject moves one or both arm links using the handles shown. During the test the arm positions are sampled by potentiometers mounted on the joint axes, and they are documented in the host computer for further analysis, together with the corresponding timing information.7 Special features have been added for testing the scene visibility factor. Opening the booth doors and turning on its light produces the visible scene; closing the
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The physical arm and the booth system, including hardware, electronics, and related software, have been designed by Branimir Stankovic and Steve Seaney at the University of Wisconsin Robotics Laboratory [120].
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door shut and turning off the light makes it an invisible environment. For the latter test, the side surfaces of the arm links and of the obstacles are equipped with densely spaced contacts and LED elements located along perimeters of both links (Figure 7.10). There are 117 such LEDs on the inner link (link 1) and 173 LEDs on the outer link (link 2). When a link touches an obstacle, one or more LEDs light up, informing the subject of a collision and giving its exact location. Visually, the effect is similar to how a contact is shown in the virtual arm test.8
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7.3 EXPERIMENT DESIGN 7.3.1 The Setup Two batteries of tests, called Experiment One and Experiment Two, have been carried out to address the issues listed in the previous section. Experiment One addresses the effect of three factors on human performance: interface factor, which focuses on the effect of a virtual versus physical interface; visibility factor, which relates to the subject s seeing the whole scene versus the subject s moving in the dark ; and direction factor, which deals with the effect of the direction of motion in the same scene. Each factor is therefore a dichotomy with two levels. We are especially interested in the effects of interface and visibility, since these affect most directly one s performance in motion planning tasks. The direction of motion is a secondary factor, added to help clarify the effect of the other two factors. Experiment Two is devoted speci cally to the effect of training on one s performance. The effect is studied in the context of the factors described above. One additional factor here, serving an auxiliary role, is the object-to-move factor, which distinguishes between moving a point robot in a labyrinth versus moving a two-link arm manipulator among obstacles. The arm test is the primary focus of this study; the labyrinth test is used only as a benchmark, to introduce the human subjects to the tests objectives. The complete list of factors, each with two levels (settings), is therefore as follows9 : A. Object-to-move factor, with two levels: 1. Moving a point robot in a labyrinth, as in Figure 7.1. 2. Moving a two-link revolute-revolute arm manipulator in a planar workspace with obstacles, as in Figure 7.5. B. Interface factor, with two levels: 1. In this test, called the virtual test, the subject operates on the computer screen, moving the arm links with the computer mouse; all necessary help
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In addition to this arm, a wooden mockup of the arm, of the same dimensions as the test arm, was built and installed outside the booth, to help subjects practice their motor skills in the task. 9 More details on the experiment design and test conditions can be found in Ref. 121.
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