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SP Thread V Thread SA Thread
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Each of the tasks that I ve mentioned in the preceding sections (apart from the baseband receive ISR) would be implemented as a DFC running on one of the four threads in the table. The priorities of these threads would be set in the order L1, SP, V, SA (highest to lowest).
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17.4.5.8 Layers 2 and 3
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Messages received on BCCH and PCH during idle mode are passed to layer 3 of the GSM protocol stack. Signaling messages received or transmitted on either SDCCH, SACCH or FACCH go through a small layer 2 as well, which discriminates between messages meant for the different parts of layer 3. Layer 3 of GSM is split into three main pieces: RR (Radio Resources). This is responsible for allocation and management of radio frequencies and timeslots. Allocation of a channel (SDCCH or TCH) to a mobile, change of channel or handover between base stations are handled by RR, as is the reporting of measurements
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on neighboring cells, which is used to determine when to hand over a call MM (Mobility Management). This is responsible for keeping the network informed of each mobile s approximate position via location update messages CC (Call Control). This is responsible for setting up and closing down voice calls and data calls and for sending and receiving SMS messages. Deadlines for processing messages in these layers range from four frames (18 ms) to seconds. Typically MM runs in a single thread and CC runs in two threads one for calls and one for SMS. SMS can be sent and received while a call is in progress; every other SACCH message is used for SMS in this case. RR typically uses several threads (up to 10). If you were writing a GSM stack for EKA2 from scratch, I would recommend putting layer 3 in a user-side process. This is because there would be no problem achieving latencies of 18 ms there, and running user side makes debugging easier.
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17.5 Personality layers
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Every Symbian OS product will need to incorporate some type of mobile telephony stack, and usually also a Bluetooth stack too. These two items have the following features in common: They are large complex pieces of software in which the phone manufacturer has made a considerable investment They have signi cant real time requirements They generally run over some type of RTOS, either a proprietary one or a standard commercial RTOS such as Nucleus Plus, VRTX or OSE. In the rest of this chapter, I will refer to any such software block as a legacy real time application (LRTA). One way in which you could incorporate an LRTA into a mobile phone is by running it on its own CPU, separate from the one that runs Symbian OS. There are some advantages to this solution the LRTA need not be modi ed and it is completely isolated from the Symbian OS software, reducing the integration burden. However, there are also disadvantages mainly the cost of the extra processor and the accompanying memory. So, let us assume that the separate processor solution is too expensive, and that the LRTA must run on the
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same CPU as Symbian OS. There are essentially three ways of achieving this: 1. Modify the source code (and possibly design) of the LRTA to run directly over Symbian OS either as a purely kernel-mode device driver, or as a combination of kernel and user mode components Implement a system in which both Symbian OS and the LRTA RTOS run concurrently. You could do this either by placing hooks into the Symbian OS kernel at strategic places (interrupt and possibly other exception vectors) to allow the RTOS to run, or by implementing some kind of hypervisor that performs context switches between the two operating systems. This would require modi cations to both operating systems to make calls to the hypervisor to indicate thread switches, priority changes and so on Implement a personality layer over the EKA2 kernel, which provides the same API as the RTOS, or at least as much of it as is required by the LRTA. The RTOS itself can then be dispensed with and the LRTA can run using EKA2 as the underlying real time kernel.
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I alluded to the rst of these options in Section 17.4.5. Nevertheless, this option is unlikely to be viable because of the time it would take to modify the LRTA, the risk involved in doing so and the problem of creating a second distinct version of the LRTA that then increases the phone manufacturer s maintenance burden. The second option suffers from the following problems: Performance is degraded because of the hooks that are called on every interrupt and every executive call, even if they are not related to the LRTA. The hypervisor system will degrade performance even more due to the presence of more hooks and a whole extra layer of processing on interrupts The hooks add additional complication and risk of defects to particularly sensitive areas of code Inserting hooks into the Symbian OS kernel to allow the RTOS to run whenever it wants to destroys the real time performance of EKA2 since a low priority thread in the LRTA will take precedence over a high priority thread in Symbian OS. The hypervisor system would not necessarily suffer from this problem but would be considerably more complicated and incur a larger performance penalty The hooks become extremely complicated and hard to manage if more than one RTOS needs to run, for example if both a GSM signaling stack and a Bluetooth stack are required and each uses a different RTOS.
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