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The exit channels are placed before the enter channels in the chans array so that the proper channel will be read no matter which Alternative is used The fairSelect is employed here to ensure that the same four philosophers are not always chosen if a fifth is also trying to enter
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class Butler implements CSProcess { private final AltingChannelInput[] enters; private final AltingChannelInput[] exits; Butler(AltingChannelInput[] e, AltingChannelInput[] x) { enters = e; exits = x; } public void run() { int seats = enterslength; int nseated = 0; // set up arrays for select AltingChannelInput[] chans = new AltingChannelInput[2*seats]; for (int i = 0; i < seats; ++i) { chans[i] = exits[i]; chans[seats + i] = enters[i]; } Alternative either = new Alternative(chans); Alternative exit = new Alternative(exits); for (;;) { // if max number are seated, only allow exits Alternative alt = (nseated < seats-1) either : exit; int i = altfairSelect(); chans[i]read(); // if i is in first half of array, it is an exit message if (i < seats) --nseated; else ++nseated; } }
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The Philosopher processes run forever in a loop, alternating between thinking and eating Before eating, philosophers must first enter their seats, then get both forks After eating, they do the opposite The eat and think methods are just no-ops here, but could be fleshed out to (for example) help animate a demonstration version by reporting status to JCSP channels and processes that interface into AWT
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class Philosopher implements CSProcess {
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private private private private
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final final final final
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ChannelOutput ChannelOutput ChannelOutput ChannelOutput
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leftFork; rightFork; enter; exit;
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Philosopher(ChannelOutput l, ChannelOutput r, ChannelOutput e, ChannelOutput x) { leftFork = l; rightFork = r; enter = e; exit = x; } public void run() { for (;;) { think(); enterwrite(null); // get seat leftForkwrite(null); // pick up left rightForkwrite(null); // pick up right eat(); leftForkwrite(null); rightForkwrite(null); exitwrite(null); } } private void eat() {} private void think() {} // put down left // put down right // leave seat
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Finally, we can create a College class to represent the parallel composition of the Forks, Philosophers, and Butler The channels are constructed using a JCSP convenience function create that creates arrays of channels The Parallel constructor accepts an array of CSProcess, which is first loaded with all of the participants
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class College implements CSProcess { final static int N = 5; private final CSProcess action; College() {
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One2OneChannel[] One2OneChannel[] One2OneChannel[] One2OneChannel[]
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lefts = One2OneChannelcreate(N); rights = One2OneChannelcreate(N); enters = One2OneChannelcreate(N); exits = One2OneChannelcreate(N);
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Butler butler = new Butler(enters, exits); Philosopher[] phils = new Philosopher[N]; for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i) phils[i] = new Philosopher(lefts[i], rights[i], enters[i], exits[i]); Fork[] forks = new Fork[N]; for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i) forks[i] = new Fork(rights[(i + 1) % N], lefts[i]); action = new Parallel( new CSProcess[] { butler, new Parallel(phils), new Parallel(forks) }); } public void run() { actionrun(); } public static void main(String[] args) { new College()run(); } }
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CSP has proven to be a successful approach to the design and analysis of systems that can be usefully expressed as bounded sets of identityless, interfaceless processes communicating via synchronous channels CSP was introduced in: Hoare, C A R Communicating Sequential Processes, Prentice Hall, 1985 An updated account appears in: Roscoe, A William The Theory and Practice of Concurrency, Prentice Hall, 1997 Several of the texts listed in 1 (including the book by Burns and Welling in 1254) discuss CSP in the course of describing constructs in occam and Ada Other related formalisms, design techniques, languages, and frameworks have adopted different base assumptions that adhere more closely to the characteristics of other concurrent systems and/or to different styles of analysis These include Milner's CCS and -calculus, and Berry's Esterel See:
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Milner, Robin Communication and Concurrency, Prentice Hall, 1989 Berry, Gerard "The Foundations of Esterel", in Gordon Plotkin, Colin Stirling, and Mads Tofte (eds), Proof, Language and Interaction, MIT Press, 1998 As package support becomes available for these and related approaches to concurrent system design, they become attractive alternatives to the direct use of thread-based constructs in the development of systems that are best viewed conceptually as collections of active objects For example, Triveni is an approach based in part on Esterel, and is described in: Colby, Christopher, Lalita Jategaonkar Jagadeesan, Radha Jagadeesan, Konstantin L ufer, and Carlos Puchol "Objects and Concurrency in Triveni: A Telecommunication Case Study in Java", USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems (COOTS), 1998 Triveni is supported by a Java programming language package (see the online supplement) Among its main differences from CSP is that active objects in Triveni communicate by issuing events Triveni also includes computation and composition rules surrounding the interruption and suspension of activities upon reception of events, which adds to expressiveness especially in real-time design contexts
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