Further Readings in Java

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353 Further Readings
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Joint actions serve as a unifying framework for characterizing multiparty actions in the DisCo modeling and specification language: Jarvinen, Hannu-Matti, Reino Kurki-Suonio, Markku Sakkinnen and Kari Systa "Object-Oriented Specification of Reactive Systems", Proceedings, 1990 International Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE, 1990 They are further pursued in a slightly different context in IP, which also addresses different senses of fairness that may apply to joint action designs For example, designs for some problems avoid conspiracies among some participants to starve out others See: Francez, Nissim, and Ira Forman Interacting Processes, ACM Press, 1996 For a wide-ranging survey of other approaches to task coordination among objects and processes, see: Malone, Thomas, and Kevin Crowston "The Interdisciplinary Study of Coordination", ACM Computing Surveys, March 1994 Joint action frameworks can provide the basis for implementing the internal mechanisms supporting distributed protocols For some forward-looking presentations and analyses of protocols among concurrent and distributed objects, see: Rosenschein, Jeffrey, and Gilad Zlotkin Rules of Encounter: Designing Conventions for Automated Negotiation Among Computers, MIT Press, 1994 Fagin, Ronald, Joseph Halpern, Yoram Moses, and Moshe Vardi Reasoning about Knowledge, MIT Press, 1995 A joint action framework that accommodates failures among participants is described in:
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Stroud, Robert, and Avelino Zorzo "A Distributed Object-Oriented Framework for Dependable Multiparty Interactions", Proceedings of OOPSLA, ACM, 1999
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36 Transactions
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In the context of concurrent OO programming, a transaction is an operation performed by an arbitrary client that invokes an arbitrary set of methods on an arbitrary set of participant objects, all without interference from other activities The arbitrariness of both the participants and the action sequences requires extensions of the joint action control strategies discussed in 35 Transaction techniques extend delegation-based synchronization and control to situations in which each participant may be unaware of the atomicity constraints placed on its actions, and cannot rely on more efficient structural solutions In transaction frameworks, each participant (and each client) gives up its local autonomy in deciding how to perform concurrency control Participants must instead reach consensus deciding how and when to perform actions and/or to commit to their effects Transaction frameworks are among the most famous examples of how providing components that implement valuable general-purpose functionality sometimes has the price of introducing a large number of programmer obligations Classes supporting transaction protocols can be highly usable and reusable Transaction frameworks can be used to tackle most of the concurrency problems discussed in this book But they rely on designs in which each class, at each layer of functionality, supports a standardized transaction protocol that propagates control down through successive layers The heaviness of transaction frameworks usually restricts their use to contexts in which you really need to set up objects so as to guarantee atomicity of arbitrary code sequences For example, you may be able to bypass transactional control if you know all the call-sequences that will ever be encountered in a component or application In this case, you can specifically design support for each one (using whatever techniques happen to apply) without having to address the general case This is a perhaps extreme extension of the idea (see 222) of padding reusable synchronized objects with atomic versions of frequently needed convenience methods This is sometimes a plausible alternative, in the spirit of doing the simplest and surest thing that could possibly work Similarly, you may be able to rely entirely on client-side locking (see 223) in cases where clients somehow know to obtain all locks required for a given action and how to avoid any potential deadlocks This section provides a brief overview of transaction-based techniques applicable in general-purpose concurrent programming contexts The designs presented here deal only with internal concurrency, and not explicitly with databases or distribution Because even lightweight (at least in a relative sense) internal transaction frameworks are normally tied to other application-specific constraints and features, you are unlikely to use the exact interfaces and classes described here (although most are simplified variants of those in the netjini package) And if you instead rely on a standardized transaction framework such as JDBC or JTS, you will encounter additional issues tied to persistence support and related services that fall outside the scope of this book However, the final example in this section ( 364) illustrates how the ideas behind transactions can help structure more ordinary concurrent OO designs Thus, the main goals of this section are to give a brief synopsis of how transaction systems extend other approaches to concurrency control, and to present techniques that may be scaled down as needed to apply to other concurrency problems
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As a running example, consider again writing a transfer operation for the BankAccount class in 351 From a transactional point of view, a stand-alone transfer operation (without any provisions for automatic transfers) looks like:
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