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Here the showNextPoint method creates a local Point It allows the Point to escape into display(p) only in a tail call, after showNextPoint is sure never to access it again, even if the Point is later accessed from another thread (Access from another thread could occur here: Essentially all graphics-based programs somehow rely on the AWT event thread see 1113 and 414 although it is unlikely that the thread would modify the Point object) This is an example of a hand-off protocol that ensures that, at any given time, at most one actively executing method can access an object This tail-call version is the simplest and usually best form
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Similar usages are seen in factory methods that construct and initialize an object and finally return it, as seen for example in the ParticleAppletmakeThread method in 1113 2311 Sessions Many hand-off sequences are structured as sessions in which some public entry method constructs objects that will be confined to a sequence of operations comprising a service This entry method should also be responsible for any cleanup operations required upon completion of the sequence For example:
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class SessionBasedService { // Fragments // public void service() { OutputStream output = null; try { output = new FileOutputStream(""); doService(output); } catch (IOException e) { handleIOFailure(); } finally { try { if (output != null) outputclose(); } catch (IOException ignore) {} // ignore exception in close } } void doService(OutputStream s) throws IOException { swrite(); // possibly more handoffs } }
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When you have a choice between them, it is almost always preferable to perform cleanup in finally clauses rather than relying on finalization (ie, overriding Objectfinalize) Use of finally provides a stronger guarantee about when cleanup will take place, which helps conserve possibly scarce resources such as files In contrast, finalizers generally trigger asynchronously as a result of garbage collection, if ever 2312 Alternative protocols Tail-call hand-offs do not apply if a method must access an object after a call or must make multiple calls Additional design rules are needed to cover cases such as a revised Plotter class with method:
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public void showNextPointV2() { Point p = new Point(); px = computeX(); py = computeY(); display(p);
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recordDistance(p); // added }
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Options include: Caller copies When the objects being passed around represent data values such as points in which object identity does not matter, then the caller can make a copy of the object for use by the receiver Here, for example,
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display(p);
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would be replaced by:
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display(new Point(px, py));
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Receiver copies If a method knows nothing about the usage constraints surrounding an object reference sent as an argument (and again, if object identity does not matter), it can conservatively make a copy for its own local use Here for example, the display method could have as its first line:
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Point localPoint = new Point(px, py);
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Using scalar arguments Uncertainties about caller and receiver responsibilities can be eliminated by not sending references at all, but instead sending scalar arguments providing enough information for the receiver to construct an object if desired Here, for example, we could reparameterize display to:
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protected void display(int xcoord, int ycoord) { }
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and the call to:
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display(px, py);
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Trust A receiver (or rather its author) may promise not to modify or transmit objects accessible via reference arguments It must in turn ensure lack of unwanted access in any downstream calls If none of these can be arranged, then pure confinement is not guaranteed to succeed, and other solutions described in this chapter should be applied For example, if use of javaawtPoint were not required here, you could instead use an ImmutablePoint class to ensure lack of modification (see 244)
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