METABOLISM OF TOXICANTS in Visual Studio .NET

Generating Code 128C in Visual Studio .NET METABOLISM OF TOXICANTS
METABOLISM OF TOXICANTS
ANSI/AIM Code 128 Recognizer In VS .NET
Using Barcode Control SDK for .NET Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in VS .NET applications.
PHASE I REACTIONS
Generate Code 128 Code Set A In .NET Framework
Using Barcode creator for .NET Control to generate, create Code-128 image in .NET framework applications.
Phase I reactions include microsomal monooxygenations, cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidations, co-oxidations in the prostaglandin synthetase reaction, reductions, hydrolyses, and epoxide hydration. All of these reactions, with the exception of reductions, introduce polar groups to the molecule that, in most cases, can be conjugated during phase II metabolism. The major phase I reactions are summarized in Table 7.1.
Decode Code 128 Code Set B In VS .NET
Using Barcode scanner for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications.
7.2.1 The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Microsomal Preparation, and Monooxygenations
Making Barcode In VS .NET
Using Barcode creation for .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Monooxygenation of xenobiotics are catalyzed either by the cytochrome P450 (CYP)dependent monooxygenase system or by avin-containing monooxygenases (FMO).
Decode Bar Code In VS .NET
Using Barcode decoder for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Table 7.1 Summary of Some Important Oxidative and Reductive Reactions of Xenobiotics Examples Aldrin, benzo(a)pyrene, a atoxin, bromobenzene Ethylmorphine, atrazine, p-nitroanisole, methylmercaptan Thiobenzamide, chlorpromazine, 2-acetylamino uorene Parathion, carbon disul de Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform Nitrobenzene O-Aminoazotoluene Nicotine, imiprimine, thiourea, methimazole Fonofos Acetaminophen, benzidine, epinephrine Benzphetamine, dimethylaniline Benzo(a)pyrene, 2-amino uorene, phenylbutazone FANFT, ANFT, bilirubin Purines, pteridine, methotrexate, 6-deoxycyclovir Aromatic nitrocompounds, azo dyes, nitrosoamines Methanol, ethanol, glycols, glycol ethers Aldehydes and ketones Aldehydes resulting from alcohol and glycol oxidations Parathion, paraoxon, dimethoate Benzo(a)pyrene epoxide, styrene oxide
Code 128A Generation In Visual C#
Using Barcode creation for VS .NET Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 128 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Enzymes and Reactions Cytochrome P450 Epoxidation/hydroxylation N-, O-, S-Dealkylation N-, S-, P -Oxidation Desulfuration Dehalogenation Nitro reduction Azo reduction Flavin-containing monooxygenase N-, S-, P -Oxidation Desulfuration Prostaglandin synthetase cooxidation Dehydrogenation N-Dealkylation Epoxidation/hydroxylation Oxidation Molybdenum hydroxylases Oxidation Reductions Alcohol dehydrogenase Oxidation Reduction Aldehyde dehydrogenase Oxidation Esterases and amidases Hydrolysis Epoxide hydrolase Hydrolysis
Printing Code 128C In .NET
Using Barcode encoder for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Code 128B image in ASP.NET applications.
PHASE I REACTIONS
Encoding Code 128B In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode generator for .NET Control to generate, create Code128 image in VS .NET applications.
Both are located in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell and have been studied in many tissues and organisms. This is particularly true of CYPs, probably the most studied of all enzymes. Microsomes are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum as a result of tissue homogenization and are isolated by centrifugation of the postmitochondrial supernatant fraction, described below. The endoplasmic reticulum is an anastomosing network of lipoprotein membranes extending from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and mitochrondria, whereas the microsomal fraction derived from it consists of membranous vesicles contaminated with free ribosomes, glycogen granules, and fragments of other subcellular structures such as mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. The endoplasmic reticulum, and consequently the microsomes derived from it, consists of two types, rough and smooth, the former having an outer membrane studded with ribosomes, which the latter characteristically lack. Although both rough and smooth microsomes have all of the components of the CYP-dependent monooxygenase system, the speci c activity of the smooth type is usually higher. The preparation of microsomal fractions, S9, and cytosolic fractions from tissue homogenates involves the use of two to three centrifugation steps. Following tissue extraction, careful mincing, and rinses of tissue for blood removal, the tissues are typically homogenized in buffer and centrifuged at 10,000 g for 20 minutes. The resulting supernatant, often referred to as the S9 fraction, can be used in studies where both microsomal and cytosolic enzymes are desired. More often, however, the S9 fraction is centrifuged at 100,000 g for 60 minutes to yield a microsomal pellet and a cytosolic supernatant. The pellet is typically resuspended in a volume of buffer, which will give 20 to 50 mg protein/ml and stored at 20 to 70 C. Often, the microsomal pellet is resuspended a second time and resedimented at 100,000 g for 60 minutes to further remove contaminating hemoglobin and other proteins. As described above, enzymes within the microsomal fraction (or microsomes) include CYPs, FMOs, cyclooxygenases, and other membrane-bound enzymes, including necessary coenzymes such as NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase for CYP. Enzymes found in the cytosolic fraction (derived from the supernatant of the rst 100,000 g spin) include hydrolases and most of the conjugating enzymes such as glutathione transferases, glucuronidases, sulfotransferases, methyl transferases, and acetylases. It is important to note that some cytosolic enzymes can also be found in microsomal fractions, although the opposite is not generally the case. Monooxygenations, previously known as mixed-function oxidations, are those oxidations in which one atom of a molecule of oxygen is incorporated into the substrate while the other is reduced to water. Because the electrons involved in the reduction of CYPs or FMOs are derived from NADPH, the overall reaction can be written as follows (where RH is the substrate): RH + O2 + NADPH + H+ NADP+ + ROH + H2 O.
Print Code-39 In VS .NET
Using Barcode generator for .NET framework Control to generate, create Code 39 image in .NET applications.
Bar Code Generator In .NET
Using Barcode generator for .NET framework Control to generate, create barcode image in VS .NET applications.
Generate Leitcode In .NET
Using Barcode drawer for VS .NET Control to generate, create Leitcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Making Code-39 In VB.NET
Using Barcode creator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 39 Extended image in .NET applications.
Bar Code Drawer In Java
Using Barcode drawer for Java Control to generate, create bar code image in Java applications.
Generating UCC.EAN - 128 In VB.NET
Using Barcode maker for .NET Control to generate, create EAN / UCC - 14 image in .NET applications.
Scanning Bar Code In Java
Using Barcode recognizer for Java Control to read, scan read, scan image in Java applications.