De nitions and Terms in VS .NET

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5.3.2 De nitions and Terms
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The term agricultural chemicals has largely been replaced by the term pesticides, de ned as economic poisons, regulated by federal and state laws, that are used to control, kill, or repel pests. Depending on what a compound is designed to do, pesticides have been subclassi ed into a number of categories (Table 5.2). The primary classes of pesticides in use today are fumigants, fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides with total US production of 1.2 billion pounds (1997: US Environmental Protection Agency s latest gures) and production of some 665 million pounds of wood preservatives. Table 5.3 describes the relative use of different classes of pesticides in the United States. Generally, it takes some ve to seven years to bring a pesticide to market once its pesticidal properties have been veri ed. Many tests must be conducted to determine such things as the compound s synthesis, its chemical and physical properties, and its ef cacy. In addition, in order for registration for use by the US EPA, numerous toxicity tests are undertaken including those for acute toxicity, those for chronic effects such as reproductive anomalies, carcinogenesis, and neurological effects and those for environmental effects. The mandated pesticide label contains a number of speci ed items, including the concentration and/or percentage of both the active (A.I.) and inert ingredients; proper mixing of the formulation with water to obtain the application rate of A.I., what the A.I.
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CLASSES OF TOXICANTS: USE CLASSES
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Table 5.2
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Class Algicide Fungicide
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Classi cation of Pesticides, with Examples
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Principal Chemical Type Organotin Dicarboximide Chlorinated aromatic Dithiocarbamate Mercurial Amides, acetamides Bipyridyl Carbamates, thiocarbamates Phenoxy Dinitrophenol Dinitroaniline Substitute urea Triazine Halogenated alkane Chlorinated hydrocarbon Chlorinated hydrocarbons DDT analogous Chlorinated alicyclic Cyclodiene Chlorinated terpenes Organophosphorus Carbamate Thiocyanate Dinitrophenols Fluoroacetate Botanicals Nicotinoids Rotenoids Pyrethroids Synthetic pyrethroids Synthetic nicotinoids Fiproles Juvenile hormone analogs Growth regulators Inorganics Arsenicals Fluorides Microbials Methylenedioxyphenyl Dicarboximides Organosulfur Formamidine Dinitrophenols DDT analogs Anticoagulants Botanicals Alkaloids Glycosides Fluorides Inorganics Thioureas Example, Common Name Brestar Captan Pentchlorophenol Maneb Phenylmercuric acetate Propanil Paraquat Barban 2,4-D DNOC Tri uralin Monuron Atrazine Ethylene dibromide (EDB) Bayluscide DDT BHC Aldrin Toxaphene Chlorpyrifos Carbaryl Lethane DNOC Nissol Nicotine Rotenone Pyrethrin Fenvalerate Imidacloprid Fipronil Methroprene Dimilin Lead arsenate Sodium uoride Thuricide, avermectin Piperonyl butoxide MGK-264 Ovex Chlordimeform Dinex Chlorbenzilate Warfarin Strychine sulfate Scillaren A and B Fluoroacetate Thallium sulfate ANTU
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Nematocide Molluscicide Insecticide
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will control, and how and when to apply it. In addition the label describes environmental hazards, proper storage of the material, re-entry intervals (REIs) for application sites, and the personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be worn during application or harvesting. Depending on the toxicity, formulation concentration, and use patterns, pesticides can be classi ed as general or restricted use. A general use pesticide will cause no unreasonable, adverse effects when used according to the label and can be purchased and applied by anyone. A restricted use pesticide, de ned as generally causing undesirable effects on the environment, applicator, or workers can only be purchased and applied by an individual who is licensed by the state. The US EPA has developed category use de nitions based on toxicity. Category I pesticides are highly hazardous, are classi ed as restricted use and have an oral LD50 less than or equal to 1.0/kg of body weight; category II pesticides are moderately toxic and have an oral LD50 less than or equal to 500 mg/kg; category III pesticides are generally nontoxic and have an oral LD50 less than or equal to 15,000 mg/kg. In addition the US EPA has developed a carcinogenicity categorization to classify pesticides for carcinogenicity.
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Organochlorine Insecticides
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The chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides were introduced in the 1940s and 1950s and include familiar insecticides such as DDT, methoxychlor, chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, toxaphene, mirex, and lindane. The structures of two of the more familiar ones, DDT and dieldrin, are shown in Figure 5.1. The chlorinated hydrocarbons are neurotoxicants and cause acute effects by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. Although DDT was synthesized in 1874, its insecticidal properties were not noted until 1939, when Dr. Paul Mueller, a Swiss chemist, discovered its effectiveness as an insecticide and was awarded a Nobel Prize for his work. During World War II the United States used large quantities of DDT to control vector-borne diseases, such as typhus and malaria, to which US troops were exposed. After the war DDT use became widespread in agriculture, public health, and households. Its persistence, initially considered a desirable attribute, later became the basis for public concern. The publication of Rachel Carson s book The Silent Spring in 1962 stimulated this concern and eventually led to the ban of DDT and other chlorinated insecticides in the United States in 1972.
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Table 5.3 States Class Herbicides Insecticides Fungicides Othersa Use Patterns of Pesticides in the United Percentage of Total Pesticide Use 47 19 13 21
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Note: Most recent data: for 1997, published by US EPA in 2001. a Includes fumigants and wood preservates.
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