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habitats; or (3) more susceptible to landscape-level changes because many ecosystems may be altered by the stressors. Nevertheless, a smaller area of effect is not always associated with lower risk. The function of an area within the landscape may be more important than the absolute area. Destruction of small but unique areas, such as submerged vegetation at the landwater margin, may have important effects on local wildlife populations. Also, in river systems, both rif e and pool areas provide important microhabitats that maintain the structure and function of the total river ecosystem. Stressors acting on some of these microhabitats may present a signi cant risk to the entire system. Spatial factors also are important for many species because of the linkages between ecological landscapes and population dynamics. Linkages between one or more landscapes can provide refuge for affected populations, and species may require adequate corridors between habitat patches for successful migration. The temporal scale for ecosystems can vary from seconds (photosynthesis, prokaryotic reproduction) to centuries (global climate change). Changes within a forest ecosystem can occur gradually over decades or centuries and may be affected by slowly changing external factors such as climate. The time scale of stressor-induced changes operates within the context of multiple natural time scales. In addition temporal responses for ecosystems may involve intrinsic time lags, so responses from a stressor may be delayed. Thus it is important to distinguish the long-term impacts of a stressor from the immediately visible effects. For example, visible changes resulting from eutrophication of aquatic systems (turbidity, excessive macrophyte growth, population decline) may not become evident for many years after initial increases in nutrient levels. From the temporal scale of adverse effects we come to a consideration of recovery. Recovery is the rate and extent of return of a population or community to a condition that existed before the introduction of a stressor. Because ecosystems are dynamic and even under natural conditions are constantly changing in response to changes in the physical environment (weather, natural catastrophes, etc.) or other factors, it is unrealistic to expect that a system will remain static at some level or return to exactly the same state that it was before it was disturbed. Thus the attributes of a recovered system must be carefully de ned. Examples might include productivity declines in an eutrophic system, re-establishment of a species at a particular density, species recolonization of a damaged habitat, or the restoration of health of diseased organisms. Recovery can be evaluated despite the dif culty in predicting events in ecological systems. For example, it is possible to distinguish changes that are usually reversible (e.g., recovery of a stream from sewage ef uent discharge), frequently irreversible (e.g., establishment of introduced species), and always irreversible (e.g., species extinction). It is important to consider whether signi cant structural or functional changes have occurred in a system that might render changes irreversible. For example, physical alterations such as deforestation can change soil structure and seed sources such that forests cannot easily grow again. Natural disturbance patterns can be very important when evaluating the likelihood of recovery from anthropogenic stressors. Ecosystems that have been subjected to repeated natural disturbances may be more vulnerable to anthropogenic stressors (e.g., over shing). Alternatively, if an ecosystem has become adapted to a disturbance pattern, it may be affected when the disturbance is removed ( re-maintained grasslands). The lack of natural analogues makes it dif cult to predict recovery from novel anthropogenic stressors such as exposure to synthetic chemicals.
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The relative rate of recovery also can be estimated. For example, sh populations in a stream are likely to recover much faster from exposure to a degradable chemical than from habitat alterations resulting from stream channelization. It is critical to use knowledge of factors such as the temporal scales of organisms life histories, the availability of adequate stock for recruitment, and the interspeci c and trophic dynamics of the populations in evaluating the relative rates of recovery. A sheries stock or forest might recover in several decades, a benthic infaunal community in years, and a planktonic community in weeks to months.
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