EXPOSURE CLASSES, TOXICANTS IN AIR, WATER, SOIL, DOMESTIC AND OCCUPATIONAL SETTINGS in VS .NET

Encoding Code 128B in VS .NET EXPOSURE CLASSES, TOXICANTS IN AIR, WATER, SOIL, DOMESTIC AND OCCUPATIONAL SETTINGS
EXPOSURE CLASSES, TOXICANTS IN AIR, WATER, SOIL, DOMESTIC AND OCCUPATIONAL SETTINGS
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widespread use of the herbicide 2,4,5-T. Small amounts of TCDD were contained as a contaminant in herbicide manufacturing. The US Army used this herbicide, known as Agent Orange, extensively as a defoliant in Vietnam. TCDD is one of the most toxic synthetic substances known for laboratory animals: LD50 for male rats, 0.022 mg/kg; LD50 for female rats, 0.045 mg/kg; LD50 for female guinea pigs (the most sensitive species tested), 0.0006 mg/kg. In addition it is fetotoxic to pregnant rats at a dose of only 1/400 of the LD50, and has been shown to cause birth defects at levels of 1 to 3 ng/kg. TCDD is a proven carcinogen in both mice and rats, with the liver being the primary target. Although TCDD does not appear to be particularly acutely toxic to humans, chronic low-level exposure is suspected of contributing to reproductive abnormalities and carcinogenicity.
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Assessment of hazards in the workplace is a concern of occupational/industrial toxicology and has a history that dates back to ancient civilizations. The Greek historian Strabo, who lived in the rst century AD, gave a graphic description of the arsenic mines in Pantus: The air in mines is both deadly and hard to endure on account of the grievous odor of the ore, so that the workmen are doomed to a quick death. With the coming of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century, industrial diseases increased, and new ones, such as chronic mercurialism caused by exposure to mercuric nitrate used in felting animal furs, were identi ed. Hat makers, who were especially at risk, frequently developed characteristic tremors known as hatters shakes, and the expression mad as a hatter was coined. In recent years concern has developed over the carcinogenic potential of many workplace chemicals.
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Regulation of Exposure Levels
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The goal of occupational toxicology is to ensure work practices that do not entail any unnecessary health risks. To do this, it is necessary to de ne suitable permissible levels of exposure to industrial chemicals, using the results of animal studies and epidemiological studies. These levels can be expressed by the following terms for allowable concentrations. Threshold limit values (TLVs) refer to airborne concentrations of substances and represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse effect. Because of wide variation in individual susceptibility, a small percentage of workers may experience discomfort from some substances at or below the threshold limit; a smaller percentage may be affected more seriously by aggravation of a preexisting condition or by development of an occupational illness. Threshold limits are based on the best available information from industrial experience, from experimental human and animal studies, and when possible, from a combination of the three. The basis on which the values are established may differ from substance to substance; protection against impairment of health may be a guiding factor for some, whereas reasonable freedom from irritation, narcosis, nuisance, or other forms of stress may form the basis for others. Three categories of TLVs follow:
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Threshold limit value time-weighted average (TLV-TWA) is the TWA concentration for a normal 8-hour workday or 40-hour workweek to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse effect. Time-weighted averages allow certain permissible excursions above the limit provided that they are compensated by equivalent excursions below the limit during the workday. In some instances the average concentration is calculated for a workweek rather than for a workday. Threshold limit value short-term exposure limit (TLV-STEL) is the maximal concentration to which workers can be exposed for a period up to 15 minutes continuously without suffering from (1) irritation, (2) chronic or irreversible tissue change, or (3) narcosis of suf cient degree that would increase accident proneness, impair self-rescue, or materially work ef ciency, provided that no more than four excursions per day are permitted, with at least 60 minutes between exposure periods, and provided that the daily TLV-TWA is not exceeded. Threshold limit value ceiling (TLV-C) is the concentration that should not be exceeded even instantaneously. For some substances for instance, irritant gases only one category, the TLV-ceiling, may be relevant. For other substances, two or three categories may be relevant. Biologic limit values (BLVs) represent limits of amounts of substances (or their affects) to which the worker may be exposed without hazard to health or well-being as determined by measuring the worker s tissues, uids, or exhaled breath. The biologic measurements on which the BLVs are based can furnish two kinds of information useful in the control of worker exposure: (1) measure of the worker s overall exposure and (2) measure of the worker s individual and characteristic response. Measurements of response furnish a superior estimate of the physiological status of the worker, and may consist of (1) changes in amount of some critical biochemical constituent, (2) changes in activity or a critical enzyme, and (3) changes in some physiological function. Measurement of exposure may be made by (1) determining in blood, urine, hair, nails, or body tissues and uids the amount of substance to which the worker was exposed; (2) determining the amount of the metabolite(s) of the substance in tissues and uids; and (3) determining the amount of the substance in the exhaled breath. The biologic limits may be used as an adjunct to the TLVs for air, or in place of them. Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) conditions pose a threat of severe exposure to contaminants, such as radioactive materials, that are likely to have adverse cumulative or delayed effects on health. Two factors are considered when establishing IDLH concentrations. The worker must be able to escape (1) without loss of life or without suffering permanent health damage within 30 minutes and (2) without severe eye or respiratory irritation or other reactions that could inhibit escape. If the concentration is above the IDLH, only highly reliable breathing apparatus is allowed.
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