ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION in .NET

Encode Code 128 in .NET ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION
ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION
Code 128B Scanner In VS .NET
Using Barcode Control SDK for .NET Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
OH CH3
Code 128 Code Set C Generation In VS .NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET framework Control to generate, create Code 128A image in VS .NET applications.
17b-Estradiol (endogenous hormone) OH O HO O Cl O Cl Coumestrol (botanical) Cl
Scanning Code 128 In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode scanner for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Diethylstillbestrol (pharmaceutical)
Create Bar Code In .NET
Using Barcode creation for .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in VS .NET applications.
H Cl o,p'-DDT (insecticide) Cl
Read Barcode In VS .NET
Using Barcode decoder for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications.
Cl Cl Cl
Code 128 Creator In C#
Using Barcode drawer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set B image in .NET framework applications.
Cl HO Cl Cl 4-Nonylphenol (environmental degradation product of some commerciallyused surfactants) Cl Cl
Make Code 128B In .NET
Using Barcode creator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create USS Code 128 image in ASP.NET applications.
Kepone (insecticide)
Printing Code 128C In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode maker for VS .NET Control to generate, create Code128 image in .NET framework applications.
Figure 17.6 Estrogen receptor agonists. Molecules are presented in a low-energy state that may represent their natural three-dimensional conformation.
Generating Data Matrix 2d Barcode In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generator for VS .NET Control to generate, create ECC200 image in .NET framework applications.
Ecdysone Receptor. Ecdysteroids are a class of steroid hormones that regulate a variety of processes related to development, growth, and reproduction in insects and other arthropods but are not utilized by vertebrates. Many compounds of plant origin, or derivations thereof, have been identi ed that are ecdysteroid receptor agonists (i.e., cucurbitacins, withasteroids). The ecdysteroid agonists are presumed to have evolved in plants as a means of protection against insect predation. Some environmental chemicals of anthropogenic origin also have been shown to exhibit ecdysteroid receptor agonistic activity (i.e., tebufenozide) and have been exploited as insecticides due to their ability to interfere with insect development and growth. Retinoic Acid Receptor. Most of the biological effects of retinoids are mediated through the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR). Both all-trans-retinoic acid and 9-cis-retinoic acid serve as agonists of RAR, while only 9-cis-retinoic acid functions as an agonist of RXR. The functional RAR exists as a heterodimer with RXR, while functional RXR exists as a homodimer. Methoprene is a juvenile hormone III analogue that mimics the activity of this insect hormone.
Drawing ANSI/AIM Code 128 In VS .NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET Control to generate, create Code 128 image in .NET applications.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Code-39 Maker In .NET Framework
Using Barcode creator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 3/9 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Table 17.3 Potency of Some Xenoestrogens Relative to 17 -Estradiol Chemical 17 -Estradiol Diethylstilbestrol 4-Nonylphenol 4-Octylphenol 4-tert-Octylphenol o , p -DDT o , p -DDE 2 , 5 -Dichloro-4-biphenylol 2 , 4 , 6-Trichloro-4-biphenylol 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 -Tetrachloro-4-biphenylol Bisphenol A Butylbenzylphthalate Potency 100 74 0.005 0.003 0.00036 0.00011 0.00004 0.62 1.0 0.82 0.005 0.0004
Paint Standard 2 Of 5 In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode encoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create C 2 of 5 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Source: Coldham, N. G. et al., 1997, Environ. Health Perspect. 105(7): 734 742. Note: Estrogenic potency of the compounds was measured using a recombinant yeast cell bioassay.
Encode ANSI/AIM Code 39 In C#
Using Barcode creator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 3 of 9 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Exposure of juvenile insects to methoprene results in various abnormalities associated with development and ultimately death. The environmental degradation product of methoprene, methoprenic acid was found to serve as an RXR agonist and speci cally activate genes responsive to RXR homodimers. In addition exposure of frog larvae to methoprenic acid caused developmental deformities consistent with those that have been observed in recent years in wild populations and consistent with those caused by exposure to retinoic acid under laboratory conditions. These observations indicate that methoprenic acid functions as an RXR agonist, and that this activity could contribute to the occurrence of amphibians deformities documented in the environment.
Make Data Matrix 2d Barcode In VB.NET
Using Barcode generator for .NET Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in .NET framework applications.
Hormone Receptor Antagonists
Recognizing EAN-13 Supplement 5 In .NET
Using Barcode decoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications.
While the estrogen receptor appears somewhat unique among vertebrate nuclear hormone receptors in its promiscuity toward receptor agonists, many nuclear hormone receptors have been shown to be susceptible to chemical antagonism. Receptor antagonists are de ned as chemicals that bind to a hormone receptor but do not activate the receptor. Rather, these chemicals inhibit receptor activity by preventing the endogenous hormone from binding to and activating the receptor.
Printing Bar Code In .NET Framework
Using Barcode encoder for ASP.NET Control to generate, create bar code image in ASP.NET applications.
Estrogen Receptor. Chemicals often bind to the estrogen receptor and function as mixed agonists/antagonists (discussed below). For example, the drug tamoxifen functions as an estrogen receptor antagonists in reproductive tissue but functions as an agonist with respect to the preservation of bone mineral density and reducing serum cholesterol concentrations. Accordingly tamoxifen can function as a prophylactic against the growth of estrogen-responsive breast cancers and osteoporosis via two different mechanisms (estrogen receptor antagonism and agonism, respectively). Other drugs that bind to the estrogen receptor as an antagonist or mixed agonist/antagonist include raloxifene,
Barcode Maker In VS .NET
Using Barcode drawer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create barcode image in ASP.NET applications.
ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION
DataMatrix Printer In C#.NET
Using Barcode creation for VS .NET Control to generate, create ECC200 image in VS .NET applications.
ICI 164,384, and toremifene. Environmental estrogen receptor antagonists include some phytochemicals (i.e., avonoids) and PCBs (i.e., 3, 3 , 4, 4 -tetrachlorobiphenyl). Consequences of estrogen receptor antagonism are typically considered de-feminization (loss of female traits). In laboratory animal studies, estrogen receptor antagonists have been shown in females to disrupt estrous cycles, impair fertility, increase preimplantation loss, and cause embryolethality.
Painting UPC Symbol In Java
Using Barcode generation for Java Control to generate, create UPC-A Supplement 5 image in Java applications.
Androgen Receptor. Chemicals that bind to the androgen receptor in an antagonistic fashion include the pharmaceuticals spironolactone, cimetidine, cyperoterone acetate, and hydroxy utamide. Environmental chemicals that have been shown to act as androgen receptor antagonists include the metabolites of the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin, the DDT metabolite p, p -DDE, some hydroxylated PCBs, and the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion. The consequence of androgen receptor antagonism is typically considered demasculinization (loss of male traits). Demasculinizing effects of antiandrogens in laboratory animal studies have included reductions in the size of the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle weights along with deformities of the penis. Glucocorticoid Receptor. Some drugs (i.e., mifepristone) elicit antagonistic activity toward the glucocorticoid receptor. This property has been associated with adverse side effects of some drugs and also has been capitalized upon therapeutically for the modulation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Antiglucocorticoids typically are steroidal compounds that are capable of binding to the receptors but are relatively ineffective in activating the receptor. As such, these compounds are typically mixed agonists/antagonists (see below). Glucocorticoid receptor antagonists can adversely affect growth, development, and other glucocorticoid-regulated processes (Table 17.1). Little is known of the ability of environmental chemicals to function as glucocorticoid receptor antagonists. Mixed Agonists/Antagonists. Chemicals often can function as either a receptor agonist or antagonist depending on the level of endogenous hormone. A weak agonist may bind to a receptor and stimulate some low-level receptor-mediated activity in the absence of the endogenous hormone. However, in the presence of the hormone, binding of the xenobiotic to the receptor may prevent binding of the endogenous hormone, and if the xenobiotic is a much weaker activator of receptor-mediated activity, then the net effect is loss of activity. Thus, in the presence of the endogenous hormone, the xenobiotic functions as a receptor antagonist. Whether a weak xeno-agonist functions as an agonist or antagonist depends on (1) the concentration of the xeno-agonist, (2) the binding af nity of the xeno-agonist to the receptor, (3) the concentration of the endogenous hormone to the receptor, and (4) the binding af nity of the endogenous hormone to the receptor. These compounds are classi ed mixed agonists/antagonists.
Data Matrix 2d Barcode Creator In .NET
Using Barcode creation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Data Matrix image in ASP.NET applications.