4: WORKING WITH COLOR VALUES in Visual Studio .NET

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CHAPTER 4: WORKING WITH COLOR VALUES
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As you know, the RGB system of assigning integers to color values uses values from 0 to 255. Using hexadecimal values, you need only two digits (actually, hexadecimal integers) to represent all 256 values in an 8-bit byte. It s neater. This leads to using hexadecimal integers in assigning color values. Using six values two each for red, green, and blue all the color values can be assigned using six hex integers. So returning to the value 6F001C, we can see the following: Red: 6F Blue: 00 Green: 1C Getting used to hexadecimal can take some time, but once you do, it s easy to add color values with them. Also, you can understand them in the same way as RGB decimal integers, but instead of values of 0 to 255, you use 00 to FF. The following example (HexPalette.html in this chapter s folder at www.wiley.com/go/smashinghtml5) shows some color using hexadecimals.
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<!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head> <style type= text/css > /* Palette -- only use these colors! 69675C, 69623D, ECE8CF, E8D986, B5AA69 gray, olive, cream, dark cream, khaki */ body { font-family: Comic Sans MS , cursive; background-color:#ECE8CF; color:#69675C; } h1 { font-family: Arial Black , Gadget, sans-serif; color:#B5aa60; background-color:#E8D986; text-align:center; } h2 { font-family: Lucida Sans Unicode , Lucida Grande , sans-serif; color:#b5aa69; } </style> <meta http-equiv= Content-Type content= text/html; charset=UTF-8 > <title>Hexadecimal with Palette</title> </head> <body> <h1> Style with a Color Palette</h1> <h2> Desert in the Fall</h2> In the fall, when the air cools a bit, the desert begins to settle down and cloak
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PART I: THE LANGUAGE OF THE WEB
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itself in a warmer set of hues. </body> </html>
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This example uses a color palette and simply places the color values in a comment within the <style> container so that it can be viewed while putting the Web page together. Figure 4-5 shows what you can expect to see.
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Figure 4-5: A hexadecimal color palette.
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The colors belong to a set of colors that create a certain mood or feeling. This one, Desert in the Fall was based on what the designer believed to be a palette representing that time of year in the desert.
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ADDING TRANSPARENCY TO COLOR
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One of the new features you can see on an HTML5-compliant browser is transparency, or variable opacity. A fully opaque object on the screen blocks whatever is beneath it, while a fully transparent object allows anything beneath it to be fully seen like glass. The value used to describe the level of opacity is expressed in an alpha property set between 0 and 1. Using either the RGB or HSL color formatting, the alpha is the fourth parameter. (Unfortunately, there is no hexadecimal alpha parameter in CSS3.) For example, rgba(255,0,0, 0.5) generates red with 50 percent opacity. Likewise, hsla(120, 100%, 50%, 0.3) creates green with 30 percent opacity (or 70 percent transparency). In Part IV of this book, I discuss ways to add depth to your page with the <canvas> tag so that when you stack objects on top of one another, you can better see why having some transparency in your creations is important. For now, though, you need something that you can place beneath text blocks that can be viewed through a transparent text block. The easiest method is to place a background object using the background-image property. The following code snippet shows how:
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body { background-image:url(imageFile.png); }
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CHAPTER 4: WORKING WITH COLOR VALUES
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You can use any .jpg, .gif, or .png file for a background image. For this example, three circles in the colors red, green, and blue are used as a background and on top are <h1> text with 50 percent opacity to show the effect that different colors have when viewed through a transparent object. The following code (Transparent.html in this chapter s folder at www. wiley.com/go/smashinghtml5) uses both rgba() and hsla() formats.
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<!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head> <style type= text/css > body { background-image:url(rgbBalls.png); } .transRed { color:rgba(255, 0, 0, .5); } .transGreen { color:rgba(0, 255, 0, .5); } .transBlue { color:hsla(240, 100%, 50%, .5); } .transBackground { background-color:hsla(120, 100%, 50%, .5); } </style> <meta http-equiv= Content-Type content= text/html; charset=UTF-8 > <title>Transparency/Opacity</title> </head> <body> <h1 class= transRed >Testing 123, Testing 123, Testing 123</h1> <h1 class= transGreen >Testing 123, Testing 123, Testing 123</h1> <h1 class= transBlue >Testing 123, Testing 123, Testing 123</h1> <h1 class= transBackground >Testing 123, Testing 123, Testing 123</h1> </body> </html>
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The results shown in Figure 4-6 are shown on an iPhone and they look no different than what you ll see on your a computer screen. As you can see, the transparent text and background allow the background object to show through. When a color is transparent, it picks up some of the underlying color; so, when you use it, bear in mind what the combination of the underlying and overlying colors look like together. (By the way, Figure 4-6 shows why you rarely want to use background images they have a way of cluttering the screen and destroying any sensibility in the text.)
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