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16.5 Summary
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This chapter has presented an overview of network multicast in general and multicast streaming in particular. The focus of Part II will be on techniques to support on-demand multicast streaming, which are classi ed into closed-loop algorithms ( 17), open-loop algorithms ( 18), and hybrid algorithms ( 19). In 20 we address the I/O issues in implementing hybrid media servers supporting both periodic and aperiodic data retrievals.
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References
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[1] S. Deering, Host Extensions for IP Multicasting, RFC 1112, August 1989. [2] B. Quinn and K. Almeroth, IP Multicast Applications: Challenges and Solutions, RFC 3170, September 2001. [3] K. Hastings and N. Nechita, Challenges and Opportunities of Delivering IP-based Residential Television Services, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 38, no. 11. Nov. 2000, pp. 86 92. [4] B. Williamson, Developing IP Multicast Networks, 2000, Cisco Press. [5] M. Goncalves and K. Niles, IP Multicasting: Concepts and Applications, 1998, McGraw-Hill. [6] R.T. Bagwell, J.R. McDearman, and D.T. Marlow, A Comparison of Native ATM-Multicast to IP-multicast with Emphasis on Mapping Between the Two, Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Southeastern Symposium on System Theory, 12 14 March 1995, pp. 189 193. [7] K.C. Almeroth, The Evolution of Multicast: From the MBone to Interdomain Multicast to Internet2 Deployment, IEEE Network, vol. 14, no. 1. Jan. Feb. 2000, pp. 10 20. [8] Internet2 Multicast Working Group, URL: http://multicast.internet2.edu/. [9] D. Waitzman, C. Partridge, and S. Deering, Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol, RFC 1075, November 1988. [10] J. Moy, Multicast Extensions to OSPF, RFC 1584, March 1994. [11] D. Estrin, D. Farinacci, A. Helmy, D. Thaler, S. Deering, M. Handley, V. Jacobson, L. Liu, P. Sharma, and L. Wei, Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Speci cation, RFC 2362, June 1998. [12] A. Ballardie, Core Based Trees (CBT version 2) Multicast Routing, RFC 2189, September 1997. [13] W. Fenner, Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 2, RFC 2236, November 1997. [14] B. Cain, S. Deering, I. Kouvelas, B. Fenner, and A. Thyagarajan, Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3, RFC 3376, October 2002.
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Closed-Loop Algorithms
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This chapter presents closed-loop algorithms to support on-demand multicast streaming. In closed-loop algorithms, the transmission schedule, reception schedule, and/or playback schedule are dynamically adjusted according to the current workload, i.e., number of active media streams, their playback points, etc. The objective is to merge as many clients onto as few multicast data streams as possible to reduce resource utilization. This chapter illustrates this closed-loop approach by describing the techniques of batching, patching, pre x caching, and piggybacking. These techniques not only can be applied individually, but also can be combined to achieve even more performance gains.
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17.1 Introduction
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In this chapter we present four techniques to improve the ef ciency of using multicast to support on-demand media streaming. Compared to media broadcasting, on-demand media streaming allows the users to begin viewing a selected content at their chosen time. This model is applicable to many applications, such as video-on-demand, online education, digital library, and so on. Supporting arbitrary start times for different users, however, con icts with the constraint of network multicast, where all users of the same multicast group will receive the same set of media data. To resolve this con ict, we will need to accept trade-offs in other dimensions. The following sections describe four techniques to improve multicast ef ciency by trade-offs in different dimensions. These four techniques are chosen to illustrate the possibilities of different tradeoffs and the resultant performance gains, and as such are not meant to be exhaustive. In fact, there are many other sophisticated closed-loop algorithms in the literature which are not covered in this chapter. We will brie y discuss some of them in Section 17.6 and interested readers are referred to the literature for more details.
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