high-throughput determination of log D values by lc/ms method in VS .NET

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high-throughput determination of log D values by lc/ms method
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samples can be diluted differently to match the calculated log D (clogD) values. This will solve the volume difference problem in the rst approach. Compounds with similar c log D values can be plated on the same plate for the convenience of adding similar amounts of liquid (octanol or buffer) simultaneously in 96-wells. After equilibrium, compounds in the octanol and the aqueous buffer can be transferred to new 96-well injection plates, which are placed in the autosampler for direct injection into the LC/MS. The results are analyzed, and the experimentally determined log D values (e log D) are stored in the database. If necessary, samples taken from one or two phases may be diluted before being placed inside the autosampler vials. The speci c dilution factors can be selected following strategies described previously18 and the 96-needle Apricot pipettor can be used to add octanol and buffer instead of a manual pipette. The experimental procedures and the results obtained with this new working process are summarized here.
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Boric acid, citric acid, sodium acetate, Rhodamine 6G, and sodium dihydrogenphosphate were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), tri uoroacetic acid (TFA), sodium hydrogenphosphate, and octanol were obtained from Aldrich (Milwaukee, WI), and HPLC grade acetonitrile and water were ordered from VWR Scienti c (Brisbane, CA). All other commercial compounds (alprenolol, amitriptyline, atenolol, atropine, bupivacaine, caffeine, clomipramine, diazepam, haloperidol, lidocaine, mexiletine, nortriptyline, propranolol, scopolamine, and verapamil) were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). Compounds were obtained from Theravance, Inc. (previously Advanced Medicine, Inc.). 17.2.2. Buffer and Buffer-Saturated Octanol Preparation
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The vast majority of assays used phosphate buffer at pH 7.0. Phosphate at pH 7.4 was used for the standard drugs from commercial sources to enable comparison with published values. All buffers were 10 mM concentration and were saturated with octanol prior to use. Approximately 20 mL of octanol was added to 500 mL of each buffer, and the solutions stirred overnight. The phases were allowed to separate, unstirred, for 24 hours.
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Similarly, 500 mL samples of octanol were saturated with 20 mL of the corresponding buffer at pH 7.0 for assays at pH 7.0. 17.2.3. Sample Preparation
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Manual Sample Preparation Test compounds were prepared as 20 mM stock solutions in DMSO. For partitioning, either 1 or 10 mL of compound stock was added into 1.7 mL polypropylene micro-centrifuge tubes. Then 500 mL of octanol and 499 or 490 mL of the appropriate buffer was added to these tubes to total 1 mL. The tubes were capped, vigorously vortexed for 30 seconds, then mixed endover-end for 1 hour at room temperature on a Laboratory Rotator (GlasCol Model RD4512, Terre Haute, IN) at a speed setting of 70%. The tubes were centrifuged at 15,000 g for 5 minutes to separate the phases, and transfer pipettes were used to remove the upper (octanol) and lower (buffer) phases to autosampler vials. When needed, the phases could be diluted with octanol or buffer before injection and analysis by HPLC/MS. 96-Well Plate Sample Preparation Samples were prepared in a 96-well plates (Matrix Technologies, Hudson, NH) containing 2 micromoles of test compound in each well. The 20 mM stock solutions of the test compounds in DMSO were prepared by adding 100 mL of DMSO to each of the wells. For partitioning, either 1 or 10 mL of compound stock was added to 2.0 mL 96-well plates (Nunc, Naperville, IL). For wells with 1 mL of compound stock, another 9 mL of DMSO was added. Then 500 mL of octanol and 490 mmL of 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 were added, to a total volume of 1 mL, using the 96-needle Apricot pipettor (Model PP-550MS-XH, Apricot Designs, Inc., Monrovia, CA). The 96-well plate was sealed with a pre-slit well cap (Nalge Nunc, Rochester, NY), and then mixed endover-end for 1 hour at room temperature for the manual sample preparation. The plate was then centrifuged at 4300 rpm for 10 minutes using a Sorvall centrifuge to separate the phases. The 96-needle Apricot pipettor was used to transfer the upper (octanol) and lower (buffer) phases to new 96-well plates. Alternatively, a Rainin EDP3 12-channel pipette (Rainin Instrument, Oakland, CA) was used to transfer samples from the equilibrium plate to the autosampler plates. In some instances the phases were diluted with octanol or buffer using the 96-needle Apricot pipettor before injection and analysis by LC/MS.
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