End systems, protocols, and end-to-end service models in Java

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End systems, protocols, and end-to-end service models
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We emphasize here that although the Internet's connection-oriented service comes bundled with reliable data transfer, flow control and congestion control, these three features are by no means essential components of a connection-oriented service A different type of computer network may provide a connection-oriented service to its applications without bundling in one or more of these features Indeed, any protocol that performs handshaking between the communicating entities before transferring data is a connection-orieinted service [Iren] The Internet's connection-oriented service has a name -- TCP (Transmission Control Protocol); the initial version of the TCP protocol is defined in the Internet Request for Comments RFC 793 [RFC 793] The services that TCP provides to an application include reliable transport, flow control and congestion control It is important to note that an application need only care about the services that are provided; it need not to worry about how TCP actually implements reliability, flow control, or congestion control We, of course, are very interested in how TCP implements these services and we shall cover these topics in detail in 3
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Connectionless Service
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There is no handshaking with the Internet's connectionless service When one side of an application wants to send packets to another side of an application, the sending application simply sends the packets Since there is no handshaking procedure prior to the transmission of the packets, data can be delivered faster But there are no acknowledgments either, so a source never knows for sure which packets arrive at the destination Moreover, the service makes no provision for flow control or congestion control The Internet's connectionless service is provided by UDP (User Datagram Protocol); UDP is defined in the Internet Request for Comments RFC 768 [RFC 768] Most of the more familiar Internet applications use TCP, the Internet's connection-oriented service These applications include Telnet (remote login), SMTP (for electronic mail), FTP (for file transfer), and HTTP (for the Web) Nevertheless, UDP, the Internet's connectionless service, is used by many applications, including many of the emerging multimedia applications, such as Internet phone, audio-ondemand, and video conferencing
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References
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[AT&T 1998] "Killer Apps," AT&T WWW page http://wwwattcom/attlabs/brainspin/networks/ killerappshtml [Iren] SIren, PAmer, PConrad, "The Transport Layer: Tutorial and Survey," ACM Computing Surveys, June 1999 [Thinworld 1998] Thinworld homepage, http://wwwthinworldcom/ [Mills 1998] S Mills, "TV set-tops set to take off ", CNET Newscom, Oct 1998 [RFC 768] J Postel, " Datagram Protocol," RFC 768, Aug 1980
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End systems, protocols, and end-to-end service models
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[RFC 793] J Postel, "Transmission Control Protocol," RFC 793, September 1981
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Return to Table of Contents
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Copyright Keith W Ross and Jim Kurose 1996-2000
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The Network Core
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14 The Network Core
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Having examined the endsystems and end-end transport service model of the Internet in section 13, let us now delve more deeply into the "inside" of the network In this section we study the network core -the mesh of routers that interconnect the Internet's endsystems Figure 14-1 highlights the network core in red
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Figure 14-1: The network core
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141 Circuit Switching, Packet Switching and Message Switching
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There are two fundamental approaches towards building a network core: circuit switching and packet switching In circuit-switched networks, the resources needed along a path (buffers, link bandwidth) to provide for communication between the endsystems are reserved for the duration of the session In packet-switched networks, these resources are not reserved; a session's messages use the resource on demand, and as a consequence, may have to wait (ie, queue) for access to a communication link As a simple analogy, consider two restaurants -- one which requires reservations and another which neither requires reservations nor accepts them For the restaurant that requires reservations, we have to go
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The Network Core
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through the hassle of first calling (or sending an e-mail!) before we leave home But when we arrive at the restaurant we can, in principle, immediately communicate with the waiter and order our meal For the restaurant that does not require reservations, we don't need to bother to reserve a table But when we arrive at the restaurant, we may have to wait for a table before we can communicate with the waiter The ubiquitous telephone networks are examples of circuit-switched networks Consider what happens when one person wants to send information (voice or facsimile) to another over a telephone network Before the sender can send the information, the network must first establish a connection between the sender and the receiver In contrast with the TCP connection that we discussed in the previous section, this is a bona fide connection for which the switches on the path between the sender and receiver maintain connection state for that connection In the jargon of telephony, this connection is called a circuit When the network establishes the circuit, it also reserves a constant transmission rate in the network's links for the duration of the connection This reservation allows the sender to transfer the data to the receiver at the guaranteed constant rate Today's Internet is a quintessential packet-switched network Consider what happens when one host wants to send a packet to another host over a packet-switched network As with circuit-switching, the packet is transmitted over a series of communication links But with packet-switching, the packet is sent into the network without reserving any bandwidth whatsoever If one of the links is congested because other packets need to be transmitted over the link at the same time, then our packet will have to wait in a buffer at the sending side of the transmission line, and suffer a delay The Internet makes its best effort to deliver the data in a timely manner But it does not make any guarantees Not all telecommunication networks can be neatly classified as pure circuit-switched networks or pure packet-switched networks For example, for networks based on the ATM technology, a connection can make a reservation and yet its messages may still wait for congested resources! Nevertheless, this fundamental classification into packet- and circuit-switched networks is an excellent starting point in understanding telecommunication network technology