Network Applications: Terminology and Basic Concepts in Java

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Network Applications: Terminology and Basic Concepts
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Having outlined the services provided by TCP, let us say a few words about the services that TCP does not provide First, TCP does not guarantee a minimum transmission rate In particular, a sending process is not permitted to transmit at any rate it pleases; instead the sending rate is regulated by TCP congestion control, which may force the sender to send at a low average rate Second, TCP does not provide any delay guarantees In particular, when a sending process passes a message into a TCP socket, the message will eventually arrive to receiving socket, but TCP guarantees absolutely no limit on how long the message may take to get there As many of us have experienced with the World Wide Wait, one can sometimes wait tens of seconds or even minutes for TCP to deliver a message (containing, for example, an HTML file) from Web server to Web client In summary, TCP guarantees delivery of all data, but provides no guarantees on the rate of delivery or on the delays experienced by individual messages
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UDP Services
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UDP is a no-frills, lightweight transport protocol with a minimalist service model UDP is connectionless, so there is no handshaking before the two processes start to communicate UDP provides an unreliable data transfer service, that is, when a process sends a message into a UDP socket, UDP provides no guarantee that the message will ever reach the receiving socket Furthermore, messages that do arrive to the receiving socket may arrive out of order Returning to our houses/doors analogy for processes/sockets, UDP is like having a long line of taxis waiting for passengers on the other side of the sender's door When a passenger (analogous to an application message) exits the house, it hops in one of the taxis Some of the taxis may break down, so they don't ever deliver the passenger to the receiving door; taxis may also take different routes, so that passengers arrive to the receiving door out of order On the other hand, UDP does not include a congestion control mechanism, so a sending process can pump data into a UDP socket at any rate it pleases Although all the data may not make it to the receiving socket, a large fraction of the data may arrive Also, because UDP does not use acknowledgments or retransmissions that can slow down the delivery of useful real-time data, developers of real-time applications often choose to run their applications over UDP Similar to TCP, UDP provides no guarantee on delay As many of us know, a taxi can be stuck in a traffic jam for a very long time (while the meter continues to run!)
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Application electronic mail
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Application-layer protocol SMTP [RFC 821]
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Underlying Transport Protocol TCP TCP TCP TCP UDP or TCP
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remote terminal access Telnet [RFC 854] Web file transfer remote file server HTTP [RFC 2068] FTP [RFC 959] NFS [McKusik 1996]
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file:///D|/Downloads/Livros/computa o/Computer%20Netwpproach%20Featuring%20the%20Internet/client_serverhtm (8 of 10)20/11/2004 15:51:50
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Network Applications: Terminology and Basic Concepts
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streaming multimedia Internet telephony
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proprietary (eg, Real Networks) UDP or TCP proprietary (eg, Vocaltec) typically UDP
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Figure 21-3: Popular Internet applications, their application-layer protocols, and their underlying transport protocols Figure 21-3 indicates the transport protocols used by some popular Internet applications We see that email, remote terminal access, the Web and file transfer all use TCP These applications have chosen TCP primarily because TCP provides the reliable data transfer service, guaranteeing that all data will eventually get to its destination We also see that Internet telephone typically runs over UDP Each side of an Internet phone application needs to send data across the network at some minimum rate (see Figure 212); this is more likely to be possible with UDP than with TCP Also, Internet phone applications are losstolerant, so they do not need the reliable data transfer service (and the acknowledgments and retransmissions that implement the service) provided by TCP As noted earlier, neither TCP nor UDP offer timing guarantees Does this mean that time-sensitive applications can not run in today's Internet The answer is clearly no - the Internet has been hosting timesensitive applications for many years These applications often work pretty well because they have been designed to cope, to the greatest extent possible, with this lack of guarantee We shall investigate several of these design tricks in 6 Nevertheless, clever design has its limitations when delay is excessive, as is often the case in the public Internet In summary, today's Internet can often provide satisfactory service to time-sensitive applications, but it can not provide any timing or bandwidth guarantees In 6, we shall also discuss emerging Internet service models that provide new services, including guaranteed delay service for time-sensitive applications
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