Network Applications: Terminology and Basic Concepts in Java

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Network Applications: Terminology and Basic Concepts
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While many current multimedia applications are bandwidth sensitive, future multimedia applications may use adaptive coding technique to encode at a rate that matches the currentlyavailable bandwidth While bandwidth-sensitive applications require a given amount of bandwidth, elastic applications can make use of as much or as little bandwidth as happens to be available Electronic mail, file transfer, remote access, and Web transfers are all elastic applications Of course, the more bandwidth, the better There's an adage that says that one can not be too rich, too thin, or have too much bandwidth Timing The final service requirement is that of timing Interactive real-time applications, such as Internet telephony, virtual environments, teleconferencing, and multiplayer games require tight timing constraints on data delivery in order to be "effective" For example, many of these applications require that end-to-end delays be on the order of a few hundred of milliseconds or less (See 6 and [Gauthier 1999, Ramjee 94]) Long delays in Internet telephony, for example, tend to result in unnatural pauses in the conversation; in a multiplayer game or virtual interactive environment, a long delay between taking an action and seeing the response from the environment (eg, from another player on the end of an end-to-end connection) makes the application feel less "realistic" For non-real-time applications, lower delay is always preferable to high delay, but no tight constraint is placed on the end-to-end delays
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Figure 21-2 summarizes the reliability, bandwidth, and timing requirements of some popular and emerging Internet applications
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Application file transfer electronic mail Web documents
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Data Loss no loss no loss no loss
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audio: few Kbps to 1Mbps real-time audio/video loss-tolerant video: 10's Kbps to 5 Mbps stored audio/video interactive games loss-tolerant same as interactive audio/video elastic
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Figure 21-2: Requirements of selected network applications Figure 21-2 outlines only a few of the key requirements of a few of the more popular Internet applications Our goal here is not to provide a complete classification, but simply to identify a few of the most important axes along which network application requirements can be classified
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Network Applications: Terminology and Basic Concepts
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213 Services Provided by the Internet Transport Protocols
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The Internet (and more generally TCP/IP networks) makes available two transport protocols to applications, namely, UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) When a developer creates a new application for the Internet, one of the first decisions that the developer must make is whether to use UDP or TCP Each of these protocols offers a different service model to the invoking applications
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TCP Services
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The TCP service model includes a connection-oriented service and a reliable data transfer service When an application invokes TCP for its transport protocol, the application receives both of these services from TCP
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Connection-oriented service: TCP has the client and server exchange transport-layer control information with each other before the application-level messages begin to flow This so-called handshaking procedure (that is part of the TCP protocol) alerts the client and server, allowing them to prepare for an onslaught of packets After the handshaking phase, a TCP connection is said to exist between the sockets of the two processes The connection is a full-duplex connection in that the two processes can send messages to each other over the connection at the same time When the application is finished sending messages, it must tear down the connection The service is referred to as a "connection-oriented" service rather than a "connection" service (or a "virtual circuit" service), because the two processes are connected in a very loose manner In 3 we will discuss connection-oriented service in detail and examine how it is implemented Reliable transport service: The communicating processes can rely on TCP to to deliver all messages sent without error and in the proper order When one side of the application passes a stream of bytes into a socket, it can count on TCP to deliver the same stream of data to the receiving socket, with no missing or duplicate bytes
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TCP also includes a congestion control mechanism, a service for the general welfare of the Internet rather than for the direct benefit of the communicating processes The TCP congestion control mechanism throttles a process (client or server) when the network is congested In particular, as we shall see in 3, TCP congestion control attempts to limit each TCP connection to its fair share of network bandwidth The throttling of the transmission rate can have a very harmful effect on real-time audio and video applications that have minimum bandwidth requirements Moreover, real-time applications are losstolerant and do not need a fully reliable transport service In fact, the TCP acknowledgments and retransmissions that provide the reliable transport service (discussed in 3) can further slow down the transmission rate of useful real-time data For these reasons, developers of real-time applications usually run their applications over UDP rather than TCP
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