- 1990: A Proliferation of Networks in Java

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1980 - 1990: A Proliferation of Networks
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A brief history of computer networking and the Internet
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By the end of the 1970's approximately 200 hosts were connected to the ARPAnet By the end of the 1980's the number of host connected to the public Internet, a confederation of networks looking much like today's Internet would reach 100,000 The 1980's would be a time of tremendous growth Much of the growth in the early 1980's resulted from several distinct efforts to create computer networks linking universities together BITnet (Because It's There NETwork) provided email and file transfers among several universities in the Northeast CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) was formed to link together university researchers without access to ARPAnet In 1986, NSFNET was created to provide access to NSF-sponsored supercomputing centers Starting with an initial backbone speed of 56Kbps, NSFNET's backbone would be running at 15 Mbps by the end of the decade, and would be serving as a primary backbone linking together regional networks In the ARPAnet community, many of the final pieces of today's Internet architecture were falling into place January 1, 1983 saw the official deployment of TCP/IP as the new standard host protocol for Arpanet (replacing the NCP protocol) The transition [Postel 1981] from NCP to TCP/IP was a "flag day" type event -- all host were required to transfer over to TCP/IP as of that day In the late 1980's, important extensions were made to TCP to implement host-based congestion control [Jacobson 1988] The Domain Name System, used to map between a human-readable Internet name (eg, gaiacsumass edu) and its 32-bit IP address, was also developed [Mockapetris 1983, Mockapetris 1987] Paralleling this development of the ARPAnet (which was for the most part a US effort), in the early 1980s the French launched the Minitel project, an ambitious plan to bring data networking into everyone's home Sponsored by the French government, the Minitel system consisted of a public packetswitched network (based on the X25 protocol suite, which uses virtual circuits), Minitel servers, and inexpensive terminals with built-in low speed modems The Minitel became a huge success in 1984 when the French government gave away a free Minitel terminal to each French household that wanted one Minitel sites included free sites -- such as a telephone directory site -- as well as private sites, which collected a usage-based fee from each user At its peak in the mid 1990s, it offered more than 20,000 different services, ranging from home banking to specialized research databases It was used by over 20% of France's population, generated more than $1 billion each year, and created 10,000 jobs The Minitel was in a large fraction of French homes ten years before most Americans had ever heard of the Internet It still enjoys widespread use in France, but is increasingly facing stiff competition from the Internet
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The 1990s: Commercialization and the Web
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The 1990's were issued in with two events that symbolized the continued evolution and the soon-toarrive commercialization of the Internet First, ARPAnet, the progenitor of the Internet ceased to exist MILNET and the Defense Data Network had grown in the 1980's to carry most of the US Department of Defense related traffic and NSFNET had begun to serve as a backbone network connecting regional networks in the United States and national networks overseas Also, in 1990, The World (wwwworld stdcom) became the first public dialup Internet Service Provider (ISP) In 1991, NSFNET lifted its
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A brief history of computer networking and the Internet
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restrictions on use of NSFNET for commercial purposes NSFNET itself would be decommissioned in 1995, with Internet backbone traffic being carried by commercial Internet Service Providers The main event of the 1990's however, was to be the release of the World Wide Web, which brought the Internet into the homes and businesses of millions and millions of people, worldwide The Web also served as a platform for enabling and deploying hundreds of new applications, including on-line stock trading and banking, streamed multimedia services, and information retrieval services For a brief history of the early days of the WWW, see [W3C 1995] The WWW was invented at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989-1991 [Berners-Lee 1989], based on ideas originating in earlier work on hypertext from the 1940's by Bush [Bush 1945] and since the 1960's by Ted Nelson [Ziff-Davis 1998] Berners-Lee and his associates developed initial versions of HTML, HTTP, a Web server and a browser -- the four key components of the WWW The original CERN browsers only provided a line-mode interface Around the end of 1992 there were about 200 Web servers in operation, this collection of servers being the tip of the iceberg for what was about to come At about this time several researchers were developing Web browsers with GUI interfaces, including Marc Andreesen, who developed the popular GUI browser Mosaic for X He released an alpha version of his browser in 1993, and in 1994 formed Mosaic Communications, which later became Netscape Communications Corporation By 1995 university students were using Mosaic and Netscape browsers to surf the Web on a daily basis At about this time the US government began to transfer the control of the Internet backbone to private carriers Companies -- big and small -- began to operate Web servers and transact commerce over the Web In 1996 Microsoft got into the Web business in a big way, and in the late 1990s it was sued for making its browser a central component of its operating system In 1999 there were over two-million Web servers in operation And all of this happened in less than ten years! During the 1990's, networking research and development also made significant advances in the areas of high-speed routers and routing (see, eg, 4) and local area networks (see, eg, 5) The technical community struggled with the problems of defining and implementing an Internet service model for traffic requiring real-time constraints, such as continuous media applications (see, eg, 6) The need to secure and manage Internet infrastructure (see eg, 7 and 8) also became of paramount importance as e-commerce applications proliferated and the Internet became a central component of the world's telecommunications infrastructure
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