The Internet Network Management Framework in Java

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The Internet Network Management Framework
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The final type of SNMPv2 PDU is the trap message Trap message are generated asynchronously, ie, not in response to a received request but rather in response to an event for which the managing entity requires notification [RFC 1907] defines well-known trap types that include a cold or warm start by a device, a link going up or down, the loss of a neighbor, or an authentication failure event A received trap request has no required response from a managing entity
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834 Security and Administration
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The designers of SNMPv3 have said that "SNMPv3 can be thought of as SNMPv2 with additional security and administration capabilities" [RFC2570] Certainly, there are changes in SNMPv3 over SNMPv2, but nowhere are those changes more evident than in the area of administration and security As SNMP has matured through three versions, its functionality has grown but so too, alas, has the number of SNMP-related standards documents This is evidenced by the fact that there is even now an RFC [RFC 2571] that " describes an architecture for describing SNMP Management Frameworks"! While the notion of an "architecture" for "describing a framework" might be a bit much to wrap one's mind around, the goal of RFC 2571 is an admirable one - to introduce a common language for describing the functionality and actions taken by an SNMPv3 agent or managing entity The architecture of an SNMPv3 entity is straightforward, and tour through the architecture will serve to solidify our understanding of SNMP The so-called SNMP applications consist of a command generator, notification receiver and proxy forwarder (all of which are typically found in a managing entity); a command responder and notification originator (both of which are typically found in an agent); and the possibility of other applications The command generator generates the GetRequest, GetNextRequest, GetBulkRequest and SetRequest PDUs that we examined above in section 833 and handles the received responses to these PDUs The command responder executes in an agent and receives, processes and replies (using the Response message) to received GetRequest, GetNextRequest, GetBulkRequest and SetRequest PDUs The notification originator application in an agent generates Trap PDUs; these PDUs are eventually received an processed in a notification receiver application at a managing entity The proxy forwarder application forwards request, notification, and response PDUs A PDU sent by an SNMP application next passes through the SNMP "engine" before it is sent via the appropriate transport protocol Figure 83-3 shows how a PDU generated by the command generator application first enters the dispatch module, where the SNMP version is determined The PDU is then processed in the message processing system, where the PDU is wrapped in a message header containing the SNMP version number, a message ID and message size information If encryption or authentication is needed then the appropriate header fields for this information is included as well; see [RFC 2571] for details Finally, the SNMP message (the application-generated PDU plus the message header information) is passed to the appropriate transport protocol The preferred transport protocol for carrying SNMP messages is UDP (i e, SNMP messages are carried as the payload in a UDP datagram), and the preferred port number for the SNMP is port 161
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file:///D|/Downloads/Livros/computa o/Computer%20Neown%20Approach%20Featuring%20the%20Internet/snmphtm (11 of 15)20/11/2004 15:53:15
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The Internet Network Management Framework
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Figure 83-3: SNMPv3 engine and applications We have seen above that SNMP messages are used to not just monitor, but also to control (eg, through the SetRequest command) network elements Clearly, an intruder that could intercept SNMP messages and/ or generate its own SNMP packets into the management infrastructure could wreak havoc in the network Thus, it is crucial that SNMP messages be transmitted securely Surprisingly, it is only in the most recent version of SNMP that security has received the attention that it deserves SNMPv3 provides for encryption, authentication, protection against playback attacks (see sections 72 and 73), and access control SNMPv3 security is known as user-based security [RFC 2574] in that there is the traditional concept of a user, identified by a user name, with which security information such as a password, key value, or access privileges are associated
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file:///D|/Downloads/Livros/computa o/Computer%20Neown%20Approach%20Featuring%20the%20Internet/snmphtm (12 of 15)20/11/2004 15:53:15
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