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References
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[Haynal 99] R Haynal, "Internet Backbones," http://navigatorscom/isphtml [List 1999] "The List: The Definitive ISP Buyer's Guide," http://thelistinternetcom/
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Copyright Keith W Ross and Jim Kurose 1996-2000
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A brief history of computer networking and the Internet
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19 A Brief History of Computer Networking and the Internet
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Sections 11-18 presented an overview of technology of computer networking and the Internet You should know enough now to impress your family and friends However, if you really want to be a big hit at the next cocktail party, you should sprinkle your discourse with tidbits about the fascinating history of the Internet
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1961-1972: Development and Demonstration of Early Packet Switching Principles
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The field of computer networking and today's Internet trace their beginnings back to the early 1960s, a time at which the telephone network was the world's dominant communication network Recall from section 13, that the telephone network uses circuit switching to transmit information from a sender to receiver -- an appropriate choice given that voice is transmitted at a constant rate between sender and receiver Given the increasing importance (and great expense) of computers in the early 1960's and the advent of timeshared computers, it was perhaps natural (at least with perfect hindsight!) to consider the question of how to hook computers together so that they could be shared among geographically distributed users The traffic generated by such users was likely to be "bursty" -- intervals of activity, e g, the sending of a command to a remote computer, followed by periods of inactivity, while waiting for a reply or while contemplating the received response Three research groups around the world, all unaware of the others' work [Leiner 98], began inventing the notion of packet switching as an efficient and robust alternative to circuit switching The first published work on packet-switching techniques was the work by Leonard Kleinrock [Kleinrock 1961, Kleinrock 1964], at that time a graduate student at MIT Using queuing theory, Kleinrock's work elegantly demonstrated the effectiveness of the packet-switching approach for bursty traffic sources At the same time, Paul Baran at the Rand Institute had begun investigating the use of packet switching for secure voice over military networks [Baran 1964], while at the National Physical Laboratory in England, Donald Davies and Roger Scantlebury were also developing their ideas on packet switching The work at MIT, Rand, and NPL laid the foundations for today's Internet But the Internet also has a long history of a "Let's build it and demonstrate it" attitude that also dates back to the early 1960's JC R Licklider [DEC 1990] and Lawrence Roberts, both colleagues of Kleinrock's at MIT, both went on to lead the computer science program at the Advanced Projects Research Agency (ARPA) in the United States Roberts [Roberts 67] published an overall plan for the so-called ARPAnet [Roberts 1967], the first packet-switched computer network and a direct ancestor of today's public Internet The early packet switches were known as Interface Message Processors (IMP's) and the contract to build these
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A brief history of computer networking and the Internet
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switches was awarded to BBN On Labor Day in 1969, the first IMP was installed at UCLA, with three additional IMP being installed shortly thereafter at the Stanford Research Institute, UC Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah The fledgling precursor to the Internet was four nodes large by the end of 1969 Kleinrock recalls the very first use of the network to perform a remote login from UCLA to SRI crashing the system [Kleinrock 1998]
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Figure 19-1: The first Internet Message Processor (IMP), with L Kleinrock By 1972, ARPAnet had grown to approximately 15 nodes, and was given its first public demonstration by Robert Kahn at the 1972 International Conference on Computer Communications The first host-tohost protocol between ARPAnet end systems known as the Network Control Protocol (NCP) was completed [RFC 001] With an end-to-end protocol available, applications could now be written The first e-mail program was written by Ray Tomlinson at BBN in 1972
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