The ESP Protocol in Java

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The ESP Protocol
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The ESP protocol provides network layer secrecy as well as source host authentication Once again, it all begins with a source host establishing a SA with a destination host Then the source host can send secured datagrams to the destination host As shown in Figure 78-2, a secured datagram is created by surrounding the original IP datagram data with header and trailer fields, and then inserting this encapsulated data into the data field of an IP datagram For the protocol field in the header of the IP datagram, the value 50 is used to indicate that the datagram includes an ESP header and trailer When the destination host recieves the IP datagram, it takes note of the 50 in the protocol field, and processes the datagram using the ESP protocol As shown in Figure 78-2, the original IP datagram data along with the ESP Trailer field are encrypted Secrecy is provided with DES-CBC encryption [RFC 2405] The ESP header consists of a 32bit field for the SPI and 32-bit field for the sequence number, which have exactly the same role as in the AH protocol The trailer includes the Next Header field, which also has exactly the same role Note that because the Next Header field is encrypted along with the original data, an intruder will not be able to determine the transport protocol that is being used Following the trailer there is the Authentication Data field, which again serves the same role as in the AH protocol Further details about the AH protocol can be found in [RFC 2406]
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Figure 78-2: The ESP fields in the IP datagram
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SA and Key Management
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For sucessful deployment of IPsec, a scalable and automated SA and key management scheme is necessary Several protocols have been defined for these tasks, including:
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The Internet Key Exchange (IKE) algorithm [RFC 2409] is the default key management protocol for IPsec The Internet Security Assoication and Key Management Protocol (ISKMP) defines procedures for establishing and tearing down SAs [RFC 2407] [RFC 2408] ISKMP's security association is completely separate from IKE key exchange
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This wraps up our summary of IPsec We have discussed IPsec in the context of IPv4 and the "transport mode" IPsec also defines a "tunnel mode," in which routers introduce the security functionality rather than the hosts Finally, IPsec describes encryption procedures for IPv6 as well as IPv4
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References
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[Kessler] GC Kessler, An Overview of Cryptography, May 1998, Hill Associates, http://wwwhillcom/ TechLibrary/indexhtm [RFC 2104] H Krawczyk, MBellare, R Canetti, HMAC: Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication, [RFC 2104], February 1997 [RFC 2401] S Kent and R Atkinson, Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol, [RFC 2401], November 1998
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[RFC 2402] S Kent and R Atkinson, IP Authentication Header, [RFC 2402], November 1998 [RFC 2405] C Madson and NDoraswamy, The ESP DES-CBC Cipher Algorithm with Explicit IV, [RFC 2405], November 1998 [RFC 2406] S Kent and R Atkinson, IP Authentication Header, [RFC 2406], November 1998 [RFC 2407] D Piper, The Internet IP Security Domain of Interpretation for ISAKMP, [RFC 2407], November 1998 [RFC 2408] D Maughan, M Schertler, M Schneider and J Turner, Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP), [RFC 2408], November 1998 [RFC 2409] D Harkins and D Carrel, The Internet Key Exchange (IKE), [RFC 2409], November 1998 [RFC 2411] R Thayer, N Doraswamy and R Glenn, "IP Security Document Road Map," [RFC 2411], November 1998
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Copyright 1999-2000 Keith W Ross and Jim Kurose All rights reserved
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In this chapter, we've examined the various mechanisms that our secret lovers, Bob and Alice, can use to communicate "securely" We've seen that Bob and Alice are interested in secrecy (so that they alone are able to understand the contents of a transmitted message), authentication (so that they are sure that they are talking with each other), and message integrity (so that they are sure that their messages are not altered in transit) Of course, the need for secure communication is not confined to secret lovers Indeed, we saw in section 71 that security is needed at various layers in a network architecture to protect against "bad guys" who may sniff packets, remove packets from the network, or inject falsely addressed packets into the network The first part of this chapter presented various principles underlying secure communication We covered cryptographic techniques for coding and decoding data in Section 72, including both symmetric key cryptography and public key cryptography DES and RSA were examined as specific case studies of these two major classes of cryptographic techniques in use in today's networks In section 73 we turned our attention to authentication, and developed a series of increasingly sophisticated authentication protocols to ensure that a conversant is indeed who he/she claims to be, and is "live" We saw that both symmetric key cryptography and public key cryptography can play an important role not only in disguising data (encryption/decryption), but also in performing authentication Techniques for "signing" a digital document in a manner that is verifiable, non-forgible, and non-repudiable were covered in Section 74 Once again, the application of cryptographic techniques proved essential We examined both digital signatures and message digests - a shorthand way of signing a digital document In section 75 we examined key distribution protocols We saw that for symmetric key encryption, a key distribution center - a single trusted network entity - can be used to distribute a shared symmetric key among communicating parties For public key encryption, a certification authority distributes certificates to validate public keys Armed with the techniques covered in sections 72 through 75, Bob and Alice can communicate securely (one can only hope that they are networking students who have learned this material and can thus avoid having their tryst uncovered by Trudy!) In the second part of this chapter we thus turned our attention to the use of various security techniques in networks In section 76, we used e-mail as a case study for application-layer security, designing an e-mail system that provided secrecy, sender authentication and message integrity We also examined the use of pgp as a public-key e-mail encryption scheme Our cases studies continued as we headed down the protocol stack and examined the secure sockets layer (SSL) and secure electronic transactions, the two primary protocols in use today for secure electronic commerce Both are based on public key techniques Finally, in section 78 we examined a suite of security protocols for the IP layer of the Internet - the so-called IPsec protocols These can be used to provide secrecy, authentication and message integrity between two communication IP devices
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