What is Network Security in Java

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What is Network Security
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corrupt DNS lookups and updates, routing computations, or network management functions could wreak havoc in the Internet Having now established the framework, a few of the most important definitions, and the need for network security, let us next delve into cryptography, a topic of central importance to many aspects of network security
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References
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[Cert 1999] CERT, "CERT Summaries," http://wwwcertorg/summaries/ [Denning 1997] D Denning (Editor), P Denning (Preface), Internet Besieged : Countering Cyberspace Scofflaws, Addison-Wesley Pub Co, (Reading MA, 1997) [Kessler 1998] GC Kessler, An Overview of Cryptography, May 1998, Hill Associates, http://wwwhillcom/ TechLibrary/indexhtm [NetscapePK 1998] Introduction to Public-Key Cryptography, Netscape Communications Corporation, 1998, http:// developernetscapecom/docs/manuals/security/pkin/contentshtm [GutmannLinks 1999] P Gutman, Security Resource Link Farm, http://wwwcsaucklandacnz/~pgut001/linkshtml [GutmannTutorial 1999] PGutmann, Godzilla Crypto Tutorial, http://wwwcsaucklandacnz/~pgut001/tutorial/ indexhtml [RFC 1636] R Braden, D Clark, S Crocker, C Huitema, "Report of IAB Workshop on Security in the Internet Architecture," RFC 1636, Nov 1994 [RSA 1999] RSA's Cryptography FAQ, http://wwwrsacom/rsalabs/faq/ [Punks 1999] Cypherpunks Web Page, ftp://ftpcsuaberkeleyedu/pub/cypherpunks/Homehtml
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Copyright 1999-2000 Keith W Ross and Jim Kurose All rights reserved
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Cryptogrpahy
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72 Principles of Cryptography
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Although cryptography has a long history dating back to Julius Caesar (we will look at the so-called Caesar cipher shortly), modern cryptographic techniques, including many of those used in today's Internet, are based on advances made in past twenty years The books [Kahn 1967, Singh 1999] provide a fascinating look at this long history A detailed (but entertaining and readable) technical discussion of cryptography, particularly from a network standpoint, is [Kaufman 1995] [Diffie 1998] provides a compelling and up-to-date examination of the political and social (eg, privacy) issues that are now inextricably intertwined with cryptography A complete discussion of cryptography itself requires a complete book [Kaufman 1995, Schneier 1996] and so below we only touch on the essential aspects of cryptography, particularly as they are practiced in today's Internet Two excellent on-line sites are [Kessler 99] and the RSA Labs FAQ page [RSA 1999c] Cryptographic techniques allow a sender to disguise data so that an intruder can gain no information from the intercepted data The receiver, of course must be able to recover the original data from the disguised data Figure 72-1 illustrates some of the important terminology:
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Figure 72-1: Cryptographic components Suppose now that Alice wants to send a message to Bob Alice's message in its original form (eg, "Bob, I love you Alice") is known as plaintext, or cleartext Alice encrypts her plaintext message using an encryption algorithm so that the encrypted message, known as ciphertext, looks unintelligible to any intruder Interestingly, in many modern cryptographic systems, including those used in the Internet, the encryption technique itself is known - published, standardized, and available to everyone (eg, [RFC 1321, RFC 2437,RFC 2420), even a potential intruder! Clearly, if everyone knows the method for encoding data, then there must be some bit of secret information that prevents an intruder from decrypting the transmitted
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data This is where keys come in In Figure 72-1 Alice provides a key, KA, - a string of numbers or characters, as input to the encryption algorithm The encryption algorithm takes the key and the plaintext as input and produces ciphertext as output Similarly, Bob will provide a key KB, to the decryption algorithm, that takes the ciphertext and Bob's key as input and produces the original plaintext as output In so-called symmetric key systems, Alice and Bob's keys are identical and are secret In public key systems, the key that Alice uses is known to all (!), while Bob's key is secret In the following two subsections, we consider symmetric key and public key systems in more detail
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721 Symmetric Key Cryptography
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All cryptographic algorithms involve substituting one thing for another, eg, taking a piece of plaintext and computing the appropriate ciphertext that forms the encrypted message Before studying a modern key-based cryptographic system, let us first "get our feet wet" by studying a very old simple symmetric key algorithm attributed to Julius Caesar, known as the Caesar cipher (a "cipher" is a method for encrypting data) For English text, the Caesar cipher would work by taking each letter in the plaintext message and substituting the letter that is k letters later (allowing wraparound, ie, having the letter "a" follow the letter "z") in the alphabet For example if k=4, then the letter "a" in plaintext becomes "d" in ciphertext; "b" in plaintext becomes "e" in ciphertext, and so on Here, the value of k serves as the key As an example, the plaintext message "bob, I love you alice" becomes "yly, f ilsb vlr xifzb" in ciphertext While the ciphertext does indeed look like gibberish, it wouldn't take long to break the code if you knew that the Caesar cipher was being used, as there are only 25 possible key values An improvement to the Caesar cipher is the so-called monoalphabetic cipher that also substitutes one letter in the alphabet with another letter in the alphabet However, rather than substituting according to a regular pattern (eg, substitution with an offset of k for all letters), any letter can be substituted for any other letter, as long as each letter has a unique substitute letter and vice versa Many newspaers in the US carry cryptographic puzzles based on this cipher The substitution rule in Figure 72-2 shows one possible rule for encoding plaintext plaintext letter: ciphertext letter: a b c d e f g h i f k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z m n b v c x z a s d f g h j k l p o i u y t r e w q Figure 72-2: a monoalphabetic cipher
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The plaintext message "bob, I love you alice" becomes "nkn, s gktc wky mgsbc" Thus, as in the case of the Caesar cipher, this looks like gibberish A monoalphabetic cipher would also appear to be better than the Caesar cipher in that there are 26! (on the order of 1026) possible pairings of letters rather than 25 possible pairings A brute force approach of trying all 1026 possible pairings would require far too much work to be a feasible way of breaking the encryption algorithm and decoding the message However, by statistical analysis
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