Differentiated Services: A Simple Scenario in Java

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691 Differentiated Services: A Simple Scenario
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To set the framework for defining the architectural components of the differentiated service model, let
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Differentiated Services
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us begin with the simple network shown in Figure 68-1 In the following, we describe one possible use of the diffserv components Many other possible variations are possible, as described in [RFC 2475] Our goal here is to provide an introduction to the key aspects of differentiated services, rather than to describe the architecural model in exhaustive detail
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Figure 69-1: A simple diffserv network example
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The differentiated services architecture consists of two sets of functional elements:
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Edge functions: packet classification and traffic conditioning At the incoming "edge" of the network (ie, at either a differentiated services capable host that generates traffic or at the first DS-capable router that the traffic passes through), arriving packets are marked More specifically, the Diffierentiated Service (DS) field of the packet header is set to some value For example, in Figure 67-1, packets being sent from H1 to H3 might be marked at R1, while packets being sent from H2 to H4 might be marked at R2 The mark that a packet receives identifies the class of
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traffic to which it belongs Different classes of traffic will then receive different service within the core network The RFC defining the differeniated service architecture [RFC 2475] uses the term "behavior aggregate" rather than "class of traffic" After being marked, a packet may then be immediately forwarded into the network, delayed for some time before being forwarded, or may be discarded We will see shortly that many factors can influence how a packet is to be marked, and whether it is to be forwarded immediately, delayed, or dropped
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Core function: forwarding When a DS-marked packet arrives at a DS-capable router, the packet is forwarded onto its next hop according to the so-called per-hop behavior associated with that packet's class The per-hop behavior influences how a router's buffers and link bandwidth are shared among the competing classes of traffic A crucial tenet of the DS architecture is that a router's per-hop behavior will be based only on packet markings, ie, the class of traffic to which a packet belongs Thus, if packets being sent from H1 to H3 in Figure 67-1 receive the same marking as packets from H2 to H4, then the network routers treat these packets as a aggregate, without distinguishing whether the packets originated at H1 or H2 For example, R3 would not distinguish between packets from H1 and H2 when forwarding these packets on to R4 Thus, the differentiated service architecture obviates the need to keep router state for individial source-destination pairs - an important consideration in meeting the scalability requirement discussed at the beginning of this section
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An analogy might prove useful here At many large-scale social events (eg, a large public reception, a large dance club or discoteque, a concert, a football game), people entering the event receive a "pass" of one type or another There are VIP passes for Very Important People; there are over-18 passes for people who are eighteen years old or older (eg, if alcoholic drinks are to be served); there are backstage passes at concerts; there are press passes for reporters; there is an ordinary pass (sometimes simply the lack of a special pass) for the Ordinary Person These passes are typically distributed on entry to the event, ie, at the "edge" of the event It is here at the edge where computationally intensive operations such as paying for entry, checking for the appropriate type of invitation, and matching an invitation against a piece of identification, are performed Futhermore, there may be a limit on the number of people of a given type that are allowed into an event If there is such a limit, people may have to wait before entering the event Once inside the event, one's pass allows one to receive differentiated service at many locations around the event - a VIP is provided with free drinks, a better table, free food, entry to exclusive rooms, and fawning service Conversely, an Ordinary Person is excluded from certain areas, pays for drinks, and receives only basic service In both cases, the service received within the event depends solely on the type of one's pass Moreover, all people within a class are treated alike
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