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In order to get around HTTP and/or TCP, the audio/video can be stored on and sent from a streaming server to the media player This streaming server could be a proprietary streaming server, such as those marketed by RealNetworks and Microsoft, or could be a public-domain streaming server With a streaming server, the audio/video can be sent over UDP (rather than TCP) using application-layer protocols that may be tailored to audio/video streaming than is HTTP This architecture requires two servers, as shown in Figure 62-3 One server, the HTTP server, serves Web pages (including meta files) The second server, the streaming server, serves the audio/video files The two servers can run on the same end system or on two distinct end systems (If the Web server is very busy serving Web pages, it may be advantageous to put the streaming server on its own machine) The steps for this architecture are similar to those described in the previous architecture However, now the media player requests the file from a streaming server rather than from a Web server, and now the media player and streaming server can interact using their own protocols These protocols can allow for rich user
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interaction with the audio/video stream Furthermore, the audio/video file can be sent to the media player over UDP instead of TCP
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Figure 62-3 Streaming from a streaming server to a media player In the architecture of Figure 62-3, there are many options for delivering the audio/video from the streaming server to the media player A partial list of the options is given below: 1 The audio/video is sent over UDP at a constant rate equal to the drain rate at the reciever (which is the encoded rate of the audio/video) For example, if the audio is compressed using GSM at a rate of 13 Kbps, then the server clocks out the compressed audio file at 13 Kbps As soon as the client receives compressed audio/video from the network, it decompresses the audio/video and plays it back 2 This is the same as option 1, but the media player delays play out for 2-5 seconds in order to eliminate network induced jitter The client accomplishes this task by placing the compressed media that it receives from the network into a client buffer, as shown in Figure 62-4 Once the client has "prefetched" a few seconds of the media, it begins to drain the buffer For this and the previous option, the drain rate d is equal to the fill rate x(t), except when there is packet loss, in which case x(t) is less momentarily less than d 3 The audio is sent over TCP and the media player delays play out for 2-5 seconds The server passes data to the TCP socket at a constant rate equal to the receiver drain rate d TCP retransmits lost packets, and thereby possibly improves sound quality But the fill rate x(t) now fluctuates with time due to TCP slow start and window flow control, even when there is no packet loss If there is no packet loss, the average fill rate should be approximately equal to the drain rate d Furthermore, after packet loss TCP congestion control may reduce the instantaneous rate to less than d for long periods of time This can can empty the client buffer and introduce undesirable pauses into the output of the audio/video stream at the client 4 This is the same as option 3, but now the media player uses a large client buffer - large enough to hold the much if not all of the audio/video file (possibly within disk storage) The server pushes the audio/video file into its TCP socket as quickly as it can; the client reads from its TCP socket as quickly as it can, and places the decompressed audio video into the large client buffer In this case, TCP makes use of all the instantaneous bandwidth available to the connection, so that at times x(t) can be much larger than d When the instantaneous bandwidth drops below the drain rate, the receiver does not experience loss as long as the client buffer is nonempty
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file:///D|/Downloads/Livros/computa o/Computer%20Netwch%20Featuring%20the%20Internet/audioVideoOverWebhtml (4 of 7)20/11/2004 15:52:47
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