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614 Audio and Video Compression
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Before audio and video can be transmitted over a computer network, it has to be digitized and compressed The need for digitization is obvious: computer networks transmit bits, so all transmitted information must be represented as a sequence of bits Compression is important because uncompressed audio and video consumes a tremendous amount of storage and bandwidth; removing the inherent redundancies in digitized audio and video signals can reduce by orders of magnitude the amount the data that needs to be stored and transmitted As an example, a single image consisting of 1024 pixels x 1024 pixels with each pixel encoded into 24 bist requires 3 MB of storage without compression It would take seven minutes to send this image over a 64 Kbps link If the image is compressed at a modest 10:1 compression ratio, the storage requirement is reduced to 300 KB and the transmission time drops to under 6 seconds The fields of audio and video compression are vast They have been active areas of research for more than 50 years, and there are now literally hundreds of popular techniques and standards for both audio and video compression Most universities offer entire courses on audio and video compression, and often offer a separate course on audio compression and a separate course on video compression Furthermore, electrical engineering and computer science departments often offer independent courses on the subject, with each department approaching the subject from a different angle We therefore only provide here a brief and high-level introduction to the subject
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A continuously-varying analog audio signal (which could emanate from speech or music) is normally converted to a digital signal as follows:
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The analog audio signal is first sampled at some fixed rate, eg, at 8,000 samples per second The value of each sample is an arbitrary real number Each of the samples is then "rounded" to one of a finite number of values This operation is referred to as "quantization" The number of finite values - called quantization values - is typically a power of 2, eg, 256 quantization values Each of the quantization values is represented by a fixed number of bits For example if there are 256 quantization values, then each value - and hence each sample - is represented by 1 byte Each of the samples is converted to its bit representation The bit representations of all the samples are concatenated together to form the digital representation of the signal
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As an example, if an analog audio signal is sampled at 8,000 samples per second , each sample is quantized and represented by 8 bits, then the resulting digital signal will have a rate of 64,000 bits per second This digital signal can then be converted back - ie, decoded - to an analog signal for playback However, the decoded analog signal is typically different from the original audio signal By increasing the sampling rate and the number of quantization values the decoded signal can approximate (and even be exactly equal to) the original analog signal Thus, there is a clear tradeoff between the quality of the
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decoded signal and the storage and bandwidth requirements of the digital signal The basic encoding technique that we just described is called Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Speech encoding often uses PCM, with a sampling rate of 8000 samples per second and 8 bits per sample, giving a rate of 64 kbs The audio Compact Disk (CD) also uses PCM, without a sampling rate of 44,100 samples per second with 16 bits per sample; this gives a rate of 7056 Kbps for mono and 1411 Mbps for stereo A bit rate of 1411 Mbps for stereo music exceeds most access rates, and even 64 kbps for speech exceeds the access rate for a dial-up modem user For these reasons, PCM encoded speech and music is rarely used in the Internet Instead compression techniques are used to reduce the bit rates of the stream Popular compression techniques for speech include GSM (13 Kbps), G729 (85 Kbps) and G723 (both 64 and 53 Kbps), and also a large number of proprietary techniques, including those used by RealNetworks A popular compression technique for near CD-quality stereo music is MPEG layer 3, more commonly known as MP3 MP3 compresses the bit rate for music to 128 or 112 Kbps, and produces very little sound degradation An MP3 file can be broken up into pieces, and each piece is still playable This headerless file format allows MP3 music files to be streamed across the Internet (assuming the playback bitrate and speed of the Internet connection are compatible) The MP3 compression standard is complex; it uses psychoacoustic masking, redundancy reduction and bit reservoir buffering
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