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Figure 56-10: Comparison of the typical features of popular interconnection devices We have learned in this section that hubs, bridges, routers and switches can all be used as an interconnection device for hosts and LAN segments Figure 56-10 provides a summary of the features of each of these interconnection devices The Cisco Web site provides numerous comparisons of the different interconnection technologies [Cisco 1999]
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References
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[Perlman 1999] R Perlman, Interconnections: Bridges and Routers, 2nd Ed, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1999 [Cisco 1999] Cisco Lan Switches page, http://wwwciscocom/warp/public/729/
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Copyright James F Kurose and Keith W Ross 1996-1999
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In section 55, we examined the dominant wired LAN protocol - Ethernet In the previous section we examined how LAN segments can be connected together via hubs, bridges and routers to form larger LANs In this section we examine a LAN standard (belonging to the same IEEE 802 family as Ethernet) that is being increasingly deployed for untether (wireless) LAN communication The IEEE 80211 standard [Brenner 1997, Crow 1997, IEEE 1999] defines the physical layer and media access control (MAC) layer for a wireless local area network The standard defines three different physical layers for the 80211 wireless LAN, each operating in a different frequency range and at rates of 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps In this section we focus on the architecture of 80211 LANs and their media access protocols We'll see that although it belongs to the same standard family as Ethernet, it has a significantly different architecture and media access protocol
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Figure 57-1: IEEE 80211 LAN architecture Figure 57-1 illustrates the principal components of the 80211 wireless LAN architecture The fundamental building block of the 80211 architecture is the cell, known as the basic service set (BSS) in 80211 parlance A BSS typically contains one or more wireless stations and a central base station, known as an access point (AP) in 80211 terminology The stations, which may be either fixed or mobile, and the central base station communicate amongst themselves using the IEEE 80211 wireless MAC protocol Multiple APs may be connected together (eg, using a wired Ethernet or another wireless channel) to form a so-called distribution system (DS) The DS appears to upper level protocols (eg, IP) as a single 802 network, in much the same way that a bridged, wired 8023 Ethernet network appears as a single 802 network to the upper layer protocols
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Figure 57-2: An IEEE 80211 ad hoc network Figure 57-2 shows that IEEE 80211 stations can also group themselves together to form an ad hoc network - a network with no central control and with no connections to the "outside world" Here, the network is formed "on the fly," simply because there happen to be mobile devices that have found themselves in proximity to each other, that have a need to communication, and that find no pre-existing network infrastructure (eg, a preexisting 80211 BSS with an AP) in the location An ad hoc network might be formed, for example, when people with laptops meet together (eg, in a conference room, a train, or a car) and want to exchange data in the absence of a centralized AP There has been a tremendous recent increase in interest in ad hoc networking, as communicating portable devices continue to proliferate Within the IETF, activity in ad hoc networking is centered around the mobile ad hoc networks (manet) working group
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Just as in a wired 8023 Ethernet network, stations in an IEEE 80211 wireless LAN must coordinate their access and use of the shared communication media (in this case the radio frequency) Once again, this is the job of the media access control (MAC) protocol The IEEE 80211 MAC protocol is a carrier sense multiple access protocol with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) Recall from our study of Ethernet in section 55 that a CSMA protocol first senses the channel to determine if the channel is "busy" with the transmission of a frame from some other station In the 80211 specification, the physical layer monitors the energy level on the radio frequency to determine whether or not another station is transmitting and provides this carrier sensing information to the MAC protocol If the channel is sensed idle for an amount of time equal to or greater than the Distributed Inter Frame Space (DIFS), a station is then allowed to transmit As with any random access protocol, this frame will be successfully received at the destination station if no other station's transmission has interfered with the frame's transmission
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