Ethernet Technologies in Java

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553 Ethernet Technologies
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The most common Ethernet technologies today are 10Base2, which uses thin coaxial cable in a bus topology and has a transmission rate of 10 Mbps; 10BaseT, which uses twisted-pair cooper wire in a star topology and has a transmission rate of 10 Mbps; 100BaseT, which typically uses twisted-pair cooper wire in a star topology and has a transmission rate of 100 Mbps; and Gigabit Ethernet, which uses both fiber and twisted-pair cooper wire and transmits at a rate of 1 Gbps These Ethernet technologies are standardized by the IEEE 8023 working groups For this reason, Ethernet is often referred to as an 8023 LAN Before discussing specific Ethernet technologies, we need to discuss repeaters, which are commonly used in LANs as well as in wide-area transport A repeater is a physical-layer device that acts on individual bits rather than on packets It has two or more interfaces When a bit, representing a zero or a one, arrives from one interface, the repeater simply recreates the bit, boosts its energy strength, and transmits the bit onto all the other interfaces Repeaters are commonly used in LANs in order to extend their geographical range When used with Ethernet, it is important to keep in mind that repeaters do not implement carrier sensing or any other part of CSMA/CD; a repeater repeats an incoming bit on all outgoing interfaces even if there is signal energy on some of the interfaces 10Base2 Ethernet 10Base2 is a very popular Ethernet technology If you look at how your computer (at work or at school) is connected to the network, it is very possible you will see a 10Base2 connection The "10" in 10Base2 stands for "10 Mbps"; the "2" stands for "200 meters", which is the approximate maximum distance between any two nodes without repeaters between them (The actual maximum distance is 185 meters) A 10Base2 Ethernet is shown in Figure 55-4
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Figure 55-4: A 10Base2 Ethernet We see from Figure 543 that 10Base2 uses a bus topology; that is, nodes are connected (through their adapters) in a linear fashion The physical medium used to connect the nodes is thin coaxial cable, which is similar to what is used in cable TV, but with a thinner and lighter cable When an adapter transmits a frame, the frame passes through a "tee connector;" two copies of the frame leave the tee connector, one copy going in one direction and one copy in the other direction As the frames travel towards the terminators, they leave a copy at every node they pass (More precisely, as a bit passes in front of a node, part of the energy of the bit leaks into the adapter) When the frame finally reaches a terminator, it gets absorbed by the terminator Note when an adapter transmits a frame, the frame is received by every other adapter on the Ethernet Thus, 10Base2 is indeed a broadcast technology Suppose you want to connect a dozen PCs in your office using 10Base2 Ethernet To do this, you would need to purchase 12 Ethernet cards with thin Ethernet ports; 12 BNC trees, which are small metalic objects that attach to the adapters (less than one dollar each); a dozen or so thin coax segments, 5-20 meters each; and two "terminators," which you put at the two ends of the bus The cost of the whole network, including adapters, is likely to be less than the cost of a single PC! Because 10Base2 is incredibly inexpensive, it is often referred to as "cheapnet" Without a repeater, the maximum length of a 10Base2 bus is 185 meters If the bus becomes any longer, then signal attenuation can cause the system to malfunction Also, without a repeater, the maximum number of nodes is 30, as each node contributes to signal attenuation Repeaters can be used to connect 10Base2 segments in a linear fashion, with each segment having up to 30 nodes and having a length up to 185 meters Up to four repeaters can be included in a 10Base2 Ethernet, which creates up to five "segments" Thus a 10Base2 Ethernet bus can have a total length of 985 meters and support up to 150 nodes Note that the CSMA/CD access protocol is completely oblivious to the repeaters; if any two of 150 nodes transmit at the same time, there will be a collision The online reader can learn more 10Base2 by visiting Spurgeon's 10Base2 page
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