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protocol, its referse path forwarding algorithm is slightly simpler, although slightly less efficient than DVMRP PIM Sparse Mode is a center-based approach PIM routers send JOIN messages towards a rendezvous point (center) to join the tree As with CBT, intermediate routers set up multicast state and forward the JOIN message towards the rendezvous point Unlike CBT, there is no acknowledgment generated in response to a JOIN message JOIN message are periodically sent upstream to refresh/maintain the PIM routing tree One novel feature of PIM is the ability to switch from a group-shared tree to a sourcespecific tree after joining the rendezvous point A source-specific tree may be preferred due to the decreased traffic concentration that occurs when multiple source-specific trees are used (see homework problems) In PIM Sparse Mode the router that receives a datagram to send from one of its attached hosts will unicast the datagram to the rendezvous point The rendezvous point then multicasts the datagram via the group-shared tree A sender is notified by the RP that it must stop sending to the RP whenever there are no routers joined to the tree (ie, no one is listening!) PIM is implemented in numerous router platforms [IP Multicast Initiative 1998] and has recently been deployed in UUnet as part of their streaming multimedia delivery effort [LaPolla 1997] Inter-Autonomous System Multicast Routing: BGMP In our discussion above, we have implicitly assumed that all routers are running the same multicast routing protocol As we saw with unicasting, this will typically be the case within a single autonomous system (AS) However, different AS's may choose to run different multicast routing protocols One AS might choose to run PIM within autonomous system, while another may choose to run MOSPF Interoperability rules have been defined for all of the major Internet multicast routing protocols (This is a particularly messy issue due to the very different approaches taken to multicast routing by sparse and dense mode protocols) What is still missing, however, is an inter-AS multicast routing protocol to route multicast datagrams among different AS's Today, DVMRP is the defacto inter-AS multicast routing protocol However, as a dense mode protocol, it is not particularly well-suited to the rather sparse set of routers participating in today's Internet MBone The development of an inter-AS multicast protocol is an active area of research and development, being carried out by the idmr working group of the IETF [IDRM 1998] BGMP, the Border Gateway Multicast Protocol is an interdomain multicast protocol being developed in idmr It takes a group-shared tree approach towards routing An interesting problem that arises in the interdomain case is the location of the tree's center In the intra-AS case, all routers are within the same AS In the inter-AS case, however, a center could conceivably be chosen in an autonomous system that does not even contain any hosts in the multicast group; such third party dependency would not only "unfairly" burden the autonomous system (which, after all, has no interest in the multicast group), but also may unnecessarily subject the multicast group to performance dependencies on ASs outside of
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file:///D|/Downloads/Livros/computa o/Computer%20Newn%20Approach%20Featuring%20the%20Internet/mcasthtm (17 of 20)20/11/2004 15:52:28
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those participating in the group BGMP is described in [Kumar 1998]
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Having now considered the multicast routing problem and a number of multicast protocols embodying the group-shared tree and source-based tree approaches, let us conclude by enumerating some of the factors involved in evaluating a multicast protocol:
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Scalability What is the amount of state required in the routers by a multicast routing protocol How does the amount of state change as the number of groups, or number of senders in a group, change Reliance on underlying unicast routing To what extent does a multicast protocol rely on information maintained by an underlying unicast routing protocol We have seen solutions that range from reliance on one specific underlying unicast routing protocol (MOSPF), to a solution that is completely independent of the underlying unicast routing (PIM) to a solution that implements much of the same distance vector functionality that we saw earlier for the unicast case (DVMRP) Excess (un-needed) traffic received We have seen solutions where a router receives data only if it has an attached host in the multicast group (MOSPF, PIM-Sparse Mode) to solutions where the default is for a router to receive all traffic for all multicast groups (DVMRP, PIM Dense Mode) Traffic concentration The group-shared tree approach tends to concentrate traffic on a smaller number of links (those in the single tree), whereas source-specific trees tend to distribute multicast traffic more evenly Optimality of forwarding paths We have seen that determining the minimum cost multicast tree (ie, solving the Steiner problem) is difficult and that this approach has not been adopted in practice Instead, heuristic approaches, based on either using the tree of shortest paths, or selecting a center router from which to "grow" the routing multicast tree, have been adopted in practice
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