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datagram would swamp the amount of data actually carried in the datagram's payload field Explicit identification of the receivers by the sender also requires that the sender know the identities and addresses of all of the receivers We will see shortly that there are cases where this requirement might be undesirable For these reasons, in the Internet architecture (and the ATM architecture as well), a multicast datagram is addressed using address indirection That is, a single "identifier" is used for the group of receivers, and a copy of the datagram that is addressed to the group using this single "identifier" is delivered to all of the multicast receivers associated with that group In the Internet, the single "identifier" that represents a group of receivers is a Class D multicast address, as we saw earlier in section 44 The group of receivers associated with a class D address is referred to as a multicast group The multicast group abstraction is illustrated in Figure 48-2 Here, four hosts (shown in red) are associated with the multicast group address of 2261730197 and will receive all datagrams addressed to that multicast address The difficulty that we must still address is the fact that each host has a unique IP unicast address that is completely independent of the address of the multicast group in which it is participating
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Figure 48-2: the multicast group: a datagram addressed to the group is delivered to all members of the multicast group While the multicast group abstraction is simple, it raises a host (pun intended) of questions How does a group get started and how does it terminate How is the group address chosen How are new hosts added to the group (either as senders or receivers) Can anyone join a group (and send to, or receive from, that group) or is group membership restricted and if so, by whom Do group members know the identities of the other group members as part of the network layer protocol How do the network routers interoperate with each other to deliver a multicast datagram to all group members For the Internet, the answers to all of these questions involve the Internet Group Management Protocol [RFC 2236] So, let us next consider the IGMP protocol and then return to these broader questions
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Multicast Routing
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482 The IGMP Protocol
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The Internet Group Management protocol, IGMP version 2 [RFC 2236], operates between a host and its directly attached router (informally, think of the directly-attached router as the "first-hop" router that a host would see on a path to any other host outside its own local network, or the "last-hop" router on any path to that host), as shown in Figure 48-3 Figure 48-3 shows three first-hop multicast routers, each connected to its attached hosts via one outgoing local interface This local interface is attached to a LAN in this example, and while each LAN has multiple attached hosts, at most a few of these hosts will typically belong to a given multicast group at any given time IGMP provides the means for a host to inform its attached router that an application running on the host wants to join a specific multicast group Given that the scope of IGMP interaction is limited to a host and its attached router, another protocol is clearly required to coordinate the multicast routers (including the attached routers) throughout the Internet, so that multicast datagrams are routed to their final destinations This latter functionality is accomplished by the network layer multicast routing algorithms such as PIM, DVMRP, MOSFP and BGP We will study multicast routing algorithms in sections 483 and 484 Network layer multicast in the Internet thus consists of two complementary components: IGMP and multicast routing protocols
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Figure 48-3: the two components of network layer multicast: IGMP and multicast routing protocols Although IGMP is referred to as a "group membership protocol," the term is a bit misleading since IGMP operates locally, between a host and an attached router Despite its name, IGMP is not a protocol that operates among all the hosts that have joined a multicast group, hosts that may be spread around the world Indeed, there is no network-layer multicast group membership protocols that operates among all the Internet hosts in a group There is no protocol, for example, that allows a host to determine the identities of all of the other hosts, network-wide, that have joined the multicast group (See the homework problems for a further exploration of the consequences of this design choice)
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