Copyright Keith W Ross and Jim Kurose, 1996-2000 All Rights Reserved in Java

Draw Quick Response Code in Java Copyright Keith W Ross and Jim Kurose, 1996-2000 All Rights Reserved
Copyright Keith W Ross and Jim Kurose, 1996-2000 All Rights Reserved
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48 Multicast Routing
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The transport and network layer protocols we have studied so far provide for the delivery of packets from a single source to a single destination Protocols involving just one sender and one receiver are often referred to as unicast protocols A number of emerging network applications require the delivery of packets from one or more senders to a group of receivers These applications include bulk data transfer (eg, the transfer of a software upgrade from the software developer to users needing the upgrade), streaming continuous media (eg, the transfer of the audio, video and text of a live lecture to a set of distributed lecture participants), shared data applications (eg, a whiteboard or teleconferencing application that is shared among many distributed participants), data feeds (eg, stock quotes), and interactive gaming (eg, distributed interactive virtual environments or multiplayer games such as Quake) For each of these applications, an extremely useful abstraction is the notion of a multicast: the sending of a packet from one sender to multiple receivers with a single "transmit" operation In this section we consider the network layer aspects of multicast We continue our primary focus on the Internet here, as multicast is much more mature (although it is still undergoing significant develop and evolution) in the Internet than in ATM networks We will see that as in the unicast case, routing algorithms again play a central role in the network layer We will also see, however, that unlike the unicast case, Internet multicast is not a connectionless service --state information for a multicast connection must be established and maintained in routers that handle multicast packets sent among hosts in a so-called multicast group This, in turn, will require a combination of signaling and routing protocols in order to set up, maintain, and tear down connection state in the routers
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481 Introduction: The Internet multicast abstraction and multicast groups
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From a networking standpoint, the multicast abstraction -- a single send operation that results in copies of the sent data being delivered to many receivers - can be implemented in many ways One possibility is for the sender to use a separate unicast transport connection to each of the receivers An applicationlevel data unit that is passed to the transport layer is then duplicated at the sender and transmitted over each of the individual connections This approach implements a one-sender-to-many-receivers multicast abstraction using an underlying unicast network layer [Talpade 1997] It requires no explicit multicast support from the network layer to implement the multicast abstraction; multicast is emulated using multiple point-to-point unicast connections This is shown in the left of Figure 48-1, with network routers shaded in white to indicate that they are not actively involved in supporting the multicast Here, the multicast sender uses three separate unicast connections to reach the three receivers
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Figure 48-1: two approaches towards implementing the multicast abstraction
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A second alternative is to provide explicit multicast support at the network layer In this latter approach, a single datagram is transmitted from the sending host This datagram (or a copy of this datagram) is then replicated at a network router whenever it must be forwarded on multiple outgoing links in order to reach the receivers The right side of Figure 48-1 illustrates this second approach, with certain routers shaded in red to indicate that they are actively involved in supporting the multicast Here, a single datagram is transmitted by the sender That datagram is then duplicated by the router within the network; one copy is forwarded to the uppermost receiver and another copy is forwarded towards the rightmost receivers At the rightmost router, the multicast datagram is broadcast over the Ethernet that connects the two receivers to the rightmost router Clearly, this second approach towards multicast makes more efficient use of network bandwidth in that only a single copy of a datagram will ever traverse a link Other the other hand, considerable network layer support is needed to implement a mutlicast-aware network layer For the remainder of this section we will focus on a multicast-aware network layer, as this approach is implemented in the Internet and poses a number of interesting challenges With multicast communication, we are immediately faced with two problems that are much more complicated than in the case of unicast - how to identify the receivers of a multicast datagram and how to address a datagram sent to these receivers In the case of unicast communication, the IP address of the receiver (destination) is carried in each IP unicast datagram and identifies the single recipient But in the case of multicast, we now have multiple receivers Does it make sense for each multicast datagram to carry the IP addresses of all of the multiple recipients While this approach might be workable with a small number of recipients, it would not scale well to the case of hundreds or thousands of receivers; the amount of addressing information in the
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